Open Access

Characteristics of the Equatorial Electrojet determined from an array of magnetometers in N-NE Brazil

  • A. Rigoti1, 3Email author,
  • F. H. Chamalaun1,
  • N. B. Trivedi2 and
  • A. L. Padilha2
Earth, Planets and Space201451:BF03352216

DOI: 10.1186/BF03352216

Received: 2 August 1997

Accepted: 9 September 1998

Published: 6 June 2014


An array of 29 vector magnetometers was operated in N-NE Brazil from November 1990 until March 1991. We present the analysis of 16 selected quiet days, for which a simple model of an equivalent current distribution for the Sq and EEJ, fits the observed maximum amplitude of the daily variation at midday.

In equatorial regions the precise latitude profile of the Sq field is masked by the EEJ. This uncertainty is resolved by assuming that the EEJ, obtained after subtracting the Sq from the daily ranges, should present a ratio of 0.3 for the westward to eastward current. With this constraint, a combined non-linear least squares inversion of Sq and EEJ was used to estimate the parameters of Onwumechili’s model of the EEJ current distribution. The H and Z components of the EEJ are jointly inverted and good agreement obtained between the calculated and observed data for all 16 days.

The EEJ’s main parameters averaged for 16 quiet days were: A total positive current intensity equal to 67 ± 20 (103 A) for diurnal range M4 (or 80 ± 20 (103 A) for M3) and a half-width of 403 ± 67 km. The EEJ centre was located at 21 ± 16 km south of the dip equator. The Sq was estimated from several permanent observatories and found to be centred at a mean latitude of 5.5 ± 2 degrees south.