Numerical modeling results for a velocity model considering only the low-velocity subducting crust (standard model). (top) Snapshots of seismic wave propagation at 5.0, 12.0, and 19.0 s. Black lines in cross sections indicate the Conrad and Moho (Katsumata 2010), the upper surface of the Pacific slab (Nakajima et al. 2009b), and the slab Moho. The hypocenter (star) is shown in the cross section and on the inset map. Inverted triangles denote stations on the vertical profile. (bottom) Simulated vertical component waveforms with a low-pass filter (8 Hz). Waveforms are scaled by the same amplitude. Black dots indicate arrival times of the initial P waves.