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Fig. 2 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 2

From: Estimating the solar wind conditions during an extreme geomagnetic storm: a case study of the event that occurred on March 13–14, 1989

Fig. 2

Estimated solar wind parameters for the geosynchronous magnetopause crossings (GMC) event and the Dst index. Top and second panels: geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM)-Y and GSM-Z components of interplanetary magnetic field estimated for GOES GMC periods, respectively. Third panel: lower limit of dynamic pressure estimated for GOES GMC periods. Fourth panel: dawn to dusk solar wind electric field (VBs) estimated from the Dst index with the empirical model; solid line represents the VBs estimated from the difference in Dst index; dotted lines represent VBs estimated from the difference in Dst index with ±10 nT offset as the dynamic pressure effect. Bottom panel: variation of the Dst index. The two dotted vertical lines indicate the first and the second storm sudden commencement (SSC), respectively

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