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Table 3 Statistical results for PVDM applied to 30 pulses, assuming a pulse temperature of 480 °C

From: Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition—a case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

  No.   Average St. dev. Wt. average Wt. st. dev. SI units Eq.
v trans 5 Type 1 27.7 13.3 21.8 10.4 m/s (1)
25 Type 2 21.1 11.5
τ 5 Type 1 2.4 1.7 2.9 0.9 s (11)
25 Type 2 3.0 1.0
d trans(t I) 5 Type 1 94.9 7.8 71.1 15.2 m  
25 Type 2 68.1 17.1
Q(t I) 5 Type 1 1.2 · 105 0.5 · 105 0.6 · 105 0.4 · 105 kg/s (8)
25 Type 2 0.5 · 105 0.4 · 105
Q tot_min 5 Type 1 0.5 · 104 0.1 · 104 2.2 · 104 0.7 · 104 kg/s (13)
25 Type 2 1.7 · 104 0.7 · 104
Q tot_max 5 Type 1 0.8 · 104 0.2 · 104 3.5 · 104 1.0 · 104 kg/s (14)
25 Type 2 2.7 · 104 1.2 · 104
m t_max 5 Type 1 2.9 · 105 0.6 · 105 1.5 · 105 0.7 · 105 kg (18)
25 Type 2 1.3 · 105 0.8 · 105
m g_max 5 Type 1 1.7 · 105 0.4 · 105 0.9 · 105 0.4 · 105 kg (20)
25 Type 2 0.8 · 105 0.5 · 105
  1. The convective uplift velocity at transitional level v trans, duration of ash transport at transitional level τ, ash pulse diameter when entering the transitional level d trans(t I), the peak mass flux Q(t I), the minimum and maximum of the total mass flux Q tot_min and Q tot_max, and the maximum mass of gas (m g_max) and tephra (m t_max) contained within a pulse are listed. Additionally, a reference to the respective equation of determination is given