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Table 1 (a), (b) Mean (\(\mu\)) and root-mean-square (\(\sigma\)) residuals (in nT) of the DIFI-2015b model in the domain of validity, \(|\theta _{qd}| \le 55^{\circ }\), for the radial (r), polar (\(\theta\)) and azimuthal (\(\phi\)) components. (c) Mean and root-mean-square differences (in nT) between predictions of the DIFI-2015b model and independent observations at the NCK and CBI observatories during quiet times (as defined for this study, see “Data preprocessing” section), for the same components

From: First results from the Swarm Dedicated Ionospheric Field Inversion chain

  N \(\mu _r\) \(\sigma _r\) \(\mu _{\theta }\) \(\sigma _{\theta }\) \(\mu _{\phi }\) \(\sigma _{\phi }\)
(a) Satellites
 A&B 347,686 −0.21 4.58 −0.50 7.16 −1.01 10.46
 A 158,379 −0.16 4.61 −0.18 7.25 −1.48 10.67
 B 189,307 −0.25 4.54 −0.77 7.05 −0.61 10.16
(b) Observatories
 All 242,485 −0.03 6.05 0.13 7.45 0.02 7.06
 CLF 2817 −0.82 4.59 −0.10 4.91 −0.60 4.81
 HUA 4747 −1.35 7.66 −2.52 18.00 2.57 9.04
(c) Observatories
 NCK 4255 −1.34 3.88 0.94 6.37 0.14 5.47
 CBI 4248 0.96 6.12 −4.93 8.28 0.24 8.33