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Fig. 5 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 5

From: High-latitude ionospheric irregularities: differences between ground- and space-based GPS measurements during the 2015 St. Patrick’s Day storm

Fig. 5

SuperDARN polar potential maps for the Southern Hemisphere at a 18.4 UT and b 18.8 UT, and the Northern Hemisphere at c 18.0 UT with superimposed low earth orbit (LEO) Rate of TEC (ionospheric total electron content) index (ROTI) (colored lines) and in situ (thick black line) observations. Black dot indicates the position of the magnetic pole. The right-hand panel shows Swarm electron density (Ne) and LEO TEC variations for corresponding tracks on the maps. UT and geographic latitude and longitude are noted at the bottom axes. Data tracks are line of sight between two points, e.g., “SWA-GPS 19” denotes the data between SWA and GPS PRN 19. TEC data are the relative slant TEC measurements. ROTI is shown in units of TECU/min. Minutes are indicated in decimal format

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