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Table 1 Mean difference values of vTEC between 22 LT and 00 LT in TECu and with respect to the mean value vTEC at 22 LT (in %), standard deviation of the mean difference values, and mean value of the vertical component of the field-aligned neutral wind at 22 LT

From: PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions

Region \(\left( {\overline{{{\text{vTEC}}_{{{\text{GNSS}}\_22}} - {\text{vTEC}}_{{{\text{GNSS}}\_00}} }} } \right) \pm {\text{std}}_{{\overline{{({\text{vTEC}}_{{{\text{GNSS}}\_22}} - {\text{vTEC}}_{{{\text{GNSS}}\_00}} )}} }}\) (TECu) With respect to \(\overline{{{\text{vTEC}}_{{{\text{GNSS}}\_22}} }}\) (%) \(\overline{{V_{{{\text{HWM07}}\_22}} }}\) (m/s)
North America 2.11 ± 0.03 11.4 17.37
South America 1.40 ± 0.04 7.6 18.33
Asia 2.20 ± 0.02 11.6 17.84
Oceania 2.30 ± 0.03 13.4 2.75
  1. These values were derived using all data within each region shown in Fig. 2