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Table 3 Mean values of vTECGNSS, V HWM07, and the east–west difference, dvTECGNSS, and dV HWM07, at 00 LT for the highlighted sectors in the four regions

From: PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions

Region \(\overline{\text{vTEC}}\) GNSS (TECu) \(\bar{V}\) HWM07 (m/s) dvTECGNSS (TECu) dV HWM07 (m/s)
East West East West
North America 19.7 15.6 22.3 12.3 4.1 10
South America 15.7 20.8 5.7 15.8 − 5.1 − 10
Asia 19.3 18 18.8 17 1.3 1.8
Oceania 20.0 13.7 − 0.4 − 6.5 6.3 6.1