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Fig. 12 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 12

From: Data assimilation experiment of precipitable water vapor observed by a hyper-dense GNSS receiver network using a nested NHM-LETKF system

Fig. 12

Improvement rates of RMSE of hourly rainfall amount simulated by the inner domain model as a function of the inter-station distances of the assimilated PWV data. To calculate the mean improvements of RMSE, we used the ensemble mean data of each inner model cycle during 0200–0600 LT on August 14, 2012, i.e., four samples. Red- and black-colored symbols indicate that assimilated PWV data around Uji shown in Fig. 1b were PWVSPD-H and PWVCON, respectively, using the SLOC localization setting. The blue-colored symbol indicates that assimilated PWV data were all PWVCON, using CNTL localization setting

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