Skip to main content

Table 1 Details of the scoria deformation experiments. \(\phi _{\mathrm{b (Initial)}}\) and \(\phi _{\mathrm{b (Deformed)}}\) are the initial and final values of the bubble fraction in the scoria, respectively

From: Physical characteristics of scoriae and ash from 2014–2015 eruption of Aso Volcano, Japan

Sample Run Temperature (\({^{\circ }}\hbox {C}\)) Thickness (mm) \({\upphi }_{\mathrm{b(Initial)}}\) \({\upphi }_{\mathrm{b(Deformed)}}\) S (\(\hbox {mm}^{2}\)) \(\upsigma _{\mathrm{N}}\) (kPa) Results
1 1 950 9.7 0.76 670 1.5 Shrink
1 2 950 6.4 0.74 690 7.3 Shrink
1 3 950 6.3 0.74 0.68 680 37 Shrink
2 4 950 5.6 0.83 0.66 335 75 Shrink
3 5 500 5.8 0.89 310 82 Fractured
4 6 500 6.4 0.72 650 38 Fractured
5 7 700 4.3 0.95 300 83 Partially fractured
  1. S is the surface area of the scoria, and \(\sigma _{\mathrm{N}}\) is normal stress to be imposed