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Fig. 3 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 3

From: Atmospheric Kelvin–Helmholtz billows captured by the MU radar, lidars and a fish-eye camera

Fig. 3

a Profiles of dry (black) and moist (saturated) (gray) potential temperature in the height range 3.5–7.0 km calculated from data collected by a Vaisala Radiosonde released from MU Shigaraki Observatory at 07:06 LT. b The corresponding profiles of dry \(N^{2}\) and moist \(N_{\text{m}}^{2}\), c profiles of vertical shear of horizontal wind (“wind shear”) and vertical shear of wind speed (“speed shear”) and d, e profiles of dry and moist Richardson numbers (\(Ri\) and \(Ri_{\text{m}}\)) in linear scale and logarithmic scales, respectively. The vertical resolution is 20 m. The labels “KHI” and “MCT” refer to the ranges of the observed Kelvin–Helmholtz billows and convective turbulent layer below the cloud base, respectively

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