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Fig. 5 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 5

From: Viscosities of the crust and upper mantle constrained by three-dimensional GPS rates in the Sichuan–Yunnan fragment of China

Fig. 5

Fitting the modeled and observed vertical rates in the SYF. a Observed vertical rates \(V_{\text{c}}\) deduced by three-dimensional GPS rate field. The red squares denote the stations with inconsistent orientations between VTSs and \(V_{\text{c}}\). b Modeled vertical rates \(V_{m}\) with crustal viscosity \(\eta_{\text{c}} \left( {4.0 \times 10^{23} \,{\text{Pa}}\,{\text{s}}} \right)\) and upper mantle viscosity \(\eta_{\text{m}} \left( {2.8 \times 10^{22} {\text{Pa}} \,{\text{s}}} \right)\). The meaning of the symbols and lines is the same as in Fig. 2. c Distribution of misfit \(H_{\eta }\) with different values of \(\eta_{c}\) and \(\eta_{\text{m}}\). The cross of the blue dashed lines denotes the position of the minimum of \(H_{\eta }\). d \(H_{\eta }\) (blue line) with \(\eta_{\text{c}} \left( {4.0 \times 10^{23} \,{\text{Pa}}\,{\text{s}}} \right)\). The cross of the black dashed lines denotes the minimum of the \(H_{\eta }\)

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