Skip to main content

Table 4 Ballistic ejection velocities of Strombolian eruptions

From: Transport of ballistic projectiles during the 2015 Aso Strombolian eruptions

Eruption Method of observation Particle ejection velocity (m/s) References
Stromboli (Italy) Doppler radar 7–13 Hort and Seyfried (1998)
Stromboli (Italy) Photo-ballistics 16–22 Ripepe et al. (1993)
Aso (Japan) Photo-ballistics 5–35 This Study
Alaid (Kuril, Russia) Photo-ballistics 6–39 Steinberg and Babenko (1978)
Stromboli (Italy) Photo-ballistics 35–45 Ripepe et al. (2001)
Erebus (Antarctica) Doppler radar 7–52 Gerst et al. (2008)
Stromboli (Italy) Doppler radar 44–70 Hort et al. (2003)
Etna (Italy) Doppler radar 71 Gouhier and Donnadieu (2010)
Stromboli (Italy) Photo-ballistics 2–72 Chouet et al. (1974)
Etna (Italy) Photo-ballistics 15–79 McGetchin et al. (1974)
Stromboli (Italy) Acoustic sounder 20–80 Weill et al. (1992)
Stromboli (Italy) Thermal video 3–101 Patrick et al. (2007)
Heimaey (Iceland) Fall time* 75–110 Self et al. (1974)
Etna (Italy) Doppler radar 71–119 Gouhier and Donnadieu (2011)
Stromboli (Italy) Thermal video 9–129 Harris et al. (2012)
Etna (Italy) Doppler radar 136–163 Dubosclard et al. (2004)
Heimaey (Iceland) Film tracking 65–230 Blackburn et al. (1976)
Stromboli (Italy) High-speed imaging 38–405 Taddeucci et al. (2012)
  1. The table is based on Harris et al. (2012), supplemented by data that were published subsequently. This list is sorted with the maximum ejection velocity being in an ascending order from top to bottom. *Fall time method assumes that the drag is minor and thus we can disregard the drag effect