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Table 1 Observation results and discussions of four events

From: Thermospheric wind variations observed by a Fabry–Perot interferometer at Tromsø, Norway, at substorm onsets

Red-line event (component) Local time Wind variation (m/s) Diurnal tide Plasma convection Arc-associated electric field Directional winds Joule heating
R1 (East) 01:18 + 17.5 N Y U Y Y
R1 (North) 01:18 − 18.4 Y N U N Y
R2 (East) 20:25 + 48.9 Y N N U Y
R2 (North) 20:25 − 41.8 Y Y U U Y
R3 (East) 23:23 + 32.3 N Y N Y Y
R3 (North) 23:23 + 35.5 N N U Y Y
R4 (East) 01:46 + 24.5 Y Y U Y Y
R4 (North) 01:46 − 23.0 Y N U Y Y
  1. Y wind variation is consistent with that effect (for directional winds: two winds are consistent; for Joule heating: auroral activities penetrated into the Fabry–Perot interferometer scanning region); N wind variation is inconsistent with that effect (for directional winds: two winds are inconsistent); U uncertain or not discussed