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Fig. 5 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 5

From: Surface rupture and characteristics of a fault associated with the 2011 and 2016 earthquakes in the southern Abukuma Mountains, northeastern Japan, triggered by the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

Fig. 5

Photographs of surface ruptures; locations in Fig. 2a, b. Yellow arrows show the inferred fault trace based on the ruptures and linear surface displacement of InSAR analysis. a Damage in an asphalt road near Mochiyama 1 month after the 2011 event. b Further damage at the same location 5 days after the 2016 event. The total extension was measured as 12–13 cm, but this may include extension from the 2011 event. c Open crack after the 2016 event near Mochiyama in the area of peak LOS displacement, showing slight southwest-down displacement. d Extension across the Shin-Koyama bridge after the 2016 event. Although we had not checked the Shin-Koyama bridge in the 2011 survey, the pattern of weathering in the exposed steel implies extension in a pre-2016 event, presumably the 2011 event. The fresh and weathered zones measured 4 cm and 5 cm, respectively. e Evidence of extension in a guardrail at the Shin-Koyama bridge after the 2016 event. Fresh and weathered zones measured 0.8 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively

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