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Table 1 Standard deviation of difference between the computed and GNSS/leveling geoid heights at 971 benchmarks with the use of the GOCONS_GCF2_DIR_R6 model (Bruinsma et al. 2014), the GOCONS_GCF2_TIM_R6 model (Brockmann 2014), and the GOCO06s model (Kvas et al. 2019) (unit: centimeter)

From: Refinement of a gravimetric geoid model for Japan using GOCE and an updated regional gravity field model

\(\psi_{0} \left( {\text{km}} \right)\)GOCONS_GCF2_DIR_R6 (\(N_{{\text{max}}} = 300\))
L = 0L = 60L = 120L = 180L = 240L = 300
1029.9529.9529.9529.9529.9629.97
3013.5913.6013.6813.8614.1114.46
506.716.726.817.007.367.87
706.396.336.135.945.926.13
906.406.336.105.875.765.80
1106.266.206.035.875.785.76
1306.416.316.105.935.835.78
1506.596.466.196.005.885.82
\(\psi_{0} \left( {\text{km}} \right)\)GOCONS_GCF2_TIM_R6 (\(N_{{\text{max}}} = 300\))
L = 0L = 60L = 120L = 180L = 240L = 300
1029.6129.6129.6129.6229.6229.64
3013.3613.3813.4613.6313.8914.22
506.626.636.706.897.237.73
706.356.296.095.895.856.05
906.356.286.055.825.715.74
1106.206.145.975.815.725.71
1306.356.256.045.875.745.73
1506.536.406.135.945.825.76
\(\psi_{0} \left( {\text{km}} \right)\)GOCO06s (\(N_{{\text{max}}} = 300\))
L = 0L = 60L = 120L = 180L = 240L = 300
1029.5029.5029.5129.5129.5229.53
3013.3113.3313.4113.5813.8314.17
506.666.686.756.937.267.74
706.416.356.155.955.916.10
906.396.326.105.885.775.80
1106.256.186.025.875.785.77
1306.396.306.095.935.835.79
1506.576.446.185.995.885.82
  1. The modification parameters of Stokes’ integral kernel (the integration radius ψ0 and the degree of Molodensky modification L) used in the computation are also shown
  2. Italics indicates minimum value of SD in each GGM