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Table 2 Statistics of difference between gravimetric geoid models and GNSS/leveling geoid heights at 971 benchmarks for EGM2008, JGEOID2008, and this study

From: Refinement of a gravimetric geoid model for Japan using GOCE and an updated regional gravity field model

AreaEGM2008JGEOID2008This study
Mean (cm)SD (cm)Mean (cm)SD (cm)Mean (cm)SD (cm)
Hokkaido12.867.11− 13.3010.3812.614.24
Honshu0.416.18− 23.485.514.024.22
Shikoku− 1.727.40− 26.295.823.853.52
Kyushu− 0.695.17− 27.115.40− 0.303.83
Whole2.257.98− 22.528.004.765.71
  1. Mean and SD represent the mean value and standard deviation of geoid difference, respectively. The geopotential value W0 used in EGM2008 and this study is 62,636,853.4 m2/s2 from the IAG recommendation in 2015 (Sánchez et al. 2016), and that used in JGEOID2008 is 62,636,856 m2/s2 from the IAG recommendation in 1999 (Bursa 1995)