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Table 5 Comparison of models with secular variation data derived from 99 ground observatories equatorward of \(\pm 40^{\circ }\) QD latitude during the gap period between CHAMP and Swarm (19 September 2010 to 22 November 2013)

From: Co-estimation of geomagnetic field and in-orbit fluxgate magnetometer calibration parameters

 Nmean (nT/year)\(\sigma\) (nT/year)median (nT/year)MAD (nT/year)
Model A
 \(dB_r/dt\)44 7100.464.280.333.70
 \(dB_{\theta }/dt\)44 7100.219.110.798.69
 \(dB_{\phi }/dt\)44 6770.246.120.084.56
Model C
 \(dB_r/dt\)44 7100.375.260.444.50
 \(dB_{\theta }/dt\)44 7100.359.430.848.85
 \(dB_{\phi }/dt\)44 6770.366.290.204.82
Model D
 \(dB_r/dt\)44 7100.305.590.215.11
 \(dB_{\theta }/dt\)44 7100.3710.650.7310.62
 \(dB_{\phi }/dt\)44 6770.386.310.264.85
Model E
 \(dB_r/dt\)44 710− 0.507.82− 1.167.11
 \(dB_{\theta }/dt\)44 7100.5510.140.8310.03
 \(dB_{\phi }/dt\)44 6770.857.250.765.91
  1. Model B statistics are not shown since that model is not constrained during the gap