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Table 2 Summary of scaling analysis

From: Formation conditions and mechanical properties of aggregates produced in tephra–water–snow flows

References \({\rho _{\text{b}}}^\text{a}\) (\(\text {kg}\,{\text{m}}^{-3}\)) U (\(\text {m}\,{\text{s}}^{-1}\)) d (mm) \(F_{\text{c}}/P\) (–)
This study 991–1557 0.113 30 (typical case) 1006–1580
Snow slurry lahars (Cronin et al. 1996)
 LH1 (9.5 km) 470 5.5 1.30–2.04 1.41
 LH1 (16 km) 540 3.6 1.73–2.72 2.86
 LH3 (9.5 km) 910 7.5 0.49–0.77 0.39
Ice-slurry lahars (Lube et al. 2009)
 E1 (base of glacier) 650 20 0.26–0.41 0.08
 E1 (monitoring site) 900 5 0.75–1.17 0.89
  1. Bulk density, frontal speed, diameter of aggregates, and non-dimensional parameter for maintaining the aggregates are denoted by \(\rho _{\text{b}}\), U, d, and \(F_{\text{c}}/P\), respectively. \(F_{\text{c}}\) is the effective compressive strength of aggregates, which was approximately constant independent of the size (10\(^4\) Pa), and P is the dynamic pressure as \(\rho _{\text{b}} U^2 / 2\)
  2. aData of deposits except this study