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Table 2 Values of cost functions calculated by using Eq. (7) in the case of real GNSS time series

From: Adjoint-based direct data assimilation of GNSS time series for optimizing frictional parameters and predicting postseismic deformation following the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake

  Optimization Cost function
Frictional parameters Initial values Assimilation period Prediction period
First-guess values    3.97*103 6.12*104
Optimized values Optimized Fixed 1.43*103 1.07*104
Optimized Optimized 1.45*103 1.03*104
(including first-guess term of 1.17*102)