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Table 1 Information on the geomagnetic observatories used in this study

From: Exploring effects in tippers at island geomagnetic observatories due to realistic depth- and time-varying oceanic electrical conductivity

Code Name \(\text{lat}^{\text{GG}}\) \(\text{lon}^{\text{GG}}\) \(\text{lat}^{\text{GM}}\) \(\text{lon}^{\text{GM}}\) Time interval used for tippers’ estimation
API Apia \(-13.81\) \(-171.78\) \(-15.05\) 263.35 \(01/01/2016 - 31/12/2017\)
ASC Ascension Island \(-7.95\) \(-14.38\) \(-2.77\) 57.48 \(01/01/2014 - 31/12/2015\)
CKI Cocos-Keeling Islands \(-12.10\) 96.84 \(-21.56\) 168.92 \(01/01/2017 - 31/12/2018\)
GAN Gan 0.69 73.15 \(-8.64\) 145.33 \(01/01/2016 - 31/12/2017\)
GUA Guam 13.59 144.87 5.8 216.51 \(01/01/2017 - 31/12/2018\)
HON Honolulu 20.32 \(-158\) 21.65 270.85 \(01/01/2015 - 31/12/2016\)
IPM Easter Island \(-27.2\) \(-109.42\) \(-19.17\) 325.61 \(01/01/2013 - 31/12/2015\)
PPT Pamatai \(-17.57\) \(-149.58\) \(-15.05\) 285.79 \(01/01/2015 - 31/12/2016\)
SHE St. Helena* \(-15.90\) \(-5.75\) 11.78 64.24 \(01/01/2015 - 31/12/2015\)
SMA Santa Maria/Azores* 36.99 \(-25.13\) 43.21 53.57 \(01/05/2018 - 31/09/2019\)
TDC Tristan da Cunha \(-37.07\) \(-12.31\) \(-31.70\) 54.76 \(01/01/2013 - 31/12/2014\)
  1. From left to right: IAGA code, observatory name, geographic and geomagnetic latitude and longitude, and time interval used to estimate tippers. Observatories with an asterisk (*) are, as of date, not participating in INTERMAGNET and data are available from GFZ Potsdam. Geomagnetic coordinates were calculated using the IGRF-12 model, epoch 2015