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Fig. 1 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 1

From: Detection of plastic strain using GNSS data of pre- and post-seismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

Fig. 1

Crustal deformation before (top panels) and after (bottom panels) the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. GNSS data from Jun 1997 to May 2002 and from Jun 2013 to May 2018 are used for the preseismic and postseismic periods, respectively. a, b Horizontal velocities with respect to the site 950262 (35.2759N, 135.5495E; red square) for each time period. Red lines represent active faults (Research Group for Active Faults of Japan 1991). In b coseismic correction of the 2014 northern Nagano earthquake (the epicenter is shown by the red star) is applied to GEONET stations shown by blue arrows. c, d E–W strain rate for each time period. In estimating the strain rate, the method of Shen et al. (1996) is used, where DDC is set at 25 km. The negative sign represents contraction. Thick red lines represent the locations of the strain-rate profiles shown in e, f. The location of the northern NKTZ, enclosed by black dashed lines, follows Meneses-Gutierrez and Sagiya (2016). Purple triangles and solid circles represent active volcanoes and GEONET stations, respectively. e, f E–W strain-rate profiles from south (A: 37.1°N) to north (E: 37.9°N) in every 0.2°. Adjacent profiles are drawn with an offset of 300 nanostrain/year, where the zero level of the profile C corresponds to “0” in the scale of the vertical axis. Black solid, red solid, and black broken lines correspond to the DDC values of 30, 25, and 20 km, respectively. The location of each profile is shown in c, d. The extent of the northern NKTZ along each profile is shown by the dashed-dotted box

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