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Table 2 Differences in the flight path length, flight time, and fuel consumption for JFK-NRT

From: Estimate of economic impact of atmospheric radiation storm associated with solar energetic particle events on aircraft operations

Scenario 1 (reference) 2 3 4 5
Flight path length (km) 11,334.6 11,334.6 12,798.2 11,334.6 12,911.6
Increase (km) 0.0 1463.6 0.0 1577.0
Increase (%) 0.0 12.9 0.0 13.9
Flight time (s) 49,380 46,813 59,357 45,474 57,655
Increase (s) −2567 9977 −3906 8275
Increase (%) −5.2 20.2 −7.9 16.8
Fuel consumption (kg) 118,230 157,540 149,770 187,180 166,650
Increase (kg) 39,310 31,540 68,950 48,420
Increase (%) 33.2 26.7 58.3 41.0
Fuel cost increase (million JPY) 2.85 2.29 5.01 3.52
Threshold in EDR (\(\upmu {\text{Sv}}\,{\text{h}}^{-1}\)) 30 30 10 10
Constraints FL < 200 FL < 300, Lat. < 44°N FL < 140 FL < 250, Lat. < 42°N
  1. The thresholds in EDR and constraints for each scenario (Table 1) are reproduced for reference