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Table 2 Statistics of the UT1-UTC times series. Shown are the mean formal uncertainties (\(\sigma _{\text{mean}}\)), median formal uncertainties (\(\sigma _{\text{median}}\)), the (unweighted) root-mean square agreement (RMS) w.r.t. the IERS Bulletin B series, the mean bias and the standard deviation (STD) after removing the bias

From: Observing UT1-UTC with VGOS

Series \(\sigma _{\text{mean}}\) \(\sigma _{\text{median}}\) RMS Bias STD
All BKG INT1/INT2 14.8 14.2 32.9 \(14.3 \pm 3.4\) 29.6
All GSF INT1/INT2 15.1 13.2 28.3 \(-2.0 \pm 3.2\) 28.2
All USN INT1/INT2 14.6 12.9 28.4 \( 8.5 \pm 3.1\) 27.1
All GIS INT2 13.5 9.2 33.6 \(10.2 \pm 6.7\) 32.0
All IAA INT1/INT2 15.0 12.2 27.8 \( 5.0 \pm 3.6\) 27.3
All OSO INT1/INT2 16.5 15.4 31.0 \( 4.5 \pm 3.6\) 30.6
OSO VGOS-B 4.5 4.2 23.2 \(-3.8 \pm 7.2\) 22.9
Simultaneous OSO INT1 16.0 14.2 28.4 \(-0.8 \pm 9.0\) 28.3
Simultaneous BKG INT1 17.3 16.1 32.9 \( 8.4 \pm 10.1\) 31.8
Simultaneous GSF INT1 18.8 16.8 24.2 \(-7.6 \pm 7.3\) 23.0
Simultaneous USN INT1 14.3 14.4 27.9 \( 5.4 \pm 9.1\) 27.4
  1. All values are given in unit \(\mu \)s. The upper part of the table presents the statistics of all 3 months of INT1/INT2, i.e. December 2019 through February 2020, while the lower part focuses specifically on the eleven simultaneously observed INT1 sessions
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