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Table 3 Required future research topics

From: Space weather benchmarks on Japanese society

Field Effect Research topic
Electricity Black out GIC calculation based on highly accurate ionospheric and magnetospheric currents
Impact assessment considering the resistance of each substation and transformer
Consideration of not only the effect of the transformer itself, but also the possibility of triggering a domino effect, e.g., the blackout associated with the Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake
Economic impact Improvement of the accuracy of estimation of economic impact including consistency with GIC simulation results
Satellite operation Spacecraft (surface charging) Clarification of the relationship between the development of surface electric charging with causal changes in the surrounding space environment
Risk assessment considering various conditions, e.g., satellite position and the timing of the substorm (i.e., the relative position of the region with increased high-temperature electrons associated with the substorm), the energy spectrum of the substorm high-temperature electrons, the attitude at that time, the discharge threshold specific to each satellite related to its design and materials, the estimated discharge frequency, and whether the satellite is located in sunshine or shade
More analysis of the space environment around satellites and the satellite surface charging environment using observed data
Spacecraft (internal charging) Verification of internal charging and discharging by experiments and simulations at the design stage
Spacecraft (single event upsets, deterioration of solar cells) Quantitative evaluation of occurrence probabilities based on data analysis
Atmospheric drag Development of a model that can quantitatively evaluate (i) the amount of heating of the upper atmosphere due to solar ultraviolet emissions and magnetic storms and (ii) the accompanying effects on the orbit and attitude of satellites
Radio communication and broadcasting High-frequency (HF) hazard Consideration of quantitative needs and seeds matching
Quantitative understanding of failure status and consideration of the causes
Creation of a real-time ionospheric global map by using worldwide ionospheric observation data
Very high frequency (VHF) hazard Same as above
Positioning   Same as above
Development of technology to reinforce degraded satellite positioning signals
Aviation Communication failure Creation of a protocol for changing routes and suspension of operations via discussion with users
Poor positioning accuracy Evaluation of standards determined by ICAO
Quantitative investigation of the effects of space weather phenomena on aircraft equipment required for the above evaluation
Aircrew exposure Formulation of a protocol for reducing exposure dose, e.g., the allowable exposure dose rate
Investigation of the correlation of exposure dose and dose rate with the GLE scale EII and other indicators
Measurement of exposure dose by aircraft experiment and verification of model accuracy
Electronic device soft errors Discussion of soft errors caused by SEPs in addition to galactic cosmic rays
Economic impact Evaluation of the forecast accuracy and loss calculation used as a basis for determining whether space weather information is adopted
Human space activity Astronaut exposure Development of a detector that measures the proton flux in spacecraft in real time
Development of a model estimating the astronaut exposure dose from the response of a detector
Investigation of the correlation between exposure dose and GLE size measured by the EII index or other indicators
Daily life on the Earth’s surface Exposure on the ground No specific topics
Electronic device soft errors Discussion of soft errors caused by SEPs in addition to galactic cosmic rays
Malfunction of signal equipment No specific topics