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Fig. 6 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 6

From: Origins and pathways of deeply derived carbon and fluids observed in hot spring waters from non-active volcanic fields, western Kumamoto, Japan

Fig. 6

Identification for deeply originated components. a HCO3 concentration versus δ13C diagram for all collected water samples. Simple two components mixing curved lines with relative contribution rates from hypothesized mantle sourced carbon in 10% interval are shown in the graph. Mixing of two sets of end-components, soil carbon (HCO3 and δ13C: 20 mg/l and − 30‰, 160 mg/l and − 30‰, respectively) and mantle sourced carbon (HCO3 and δ13C: 4,000 mg/l and − 4.5‰, 4,000 mg/l and − 1.5‰, respectively) were hypothesized taking compositional variations observed from this study, with a same method applied elsewhere (e.g., Chiodini et al. 2000; Yamada et al. 2011; Rive et al. 2013). b Geographical distribution of relative contribution from mantle sourced carbon in groundwater samples deduced from mixing model shown in panel a. c δ2H versus δ18O plot diagram for High-HCO3 fluid shown in different colors with variable δ18O. d Geographical distribution of δ18O values. The symbol color is same as in panel c

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