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Table 1 The models developed by PSTEP for solar–terrestrial environment prediction

From: PSTEP: project for solar–terrestrial environment prediction

Model name Description URL References
R2D2 Radiation and reduced speed of sound technique for deep dynamics model of solar convection https://hottahd.github.io/R2D2-manual/# Hotta et al. (2019)
κ-scheme A physics-based model to predict imminent large solar flares https://nagoya.repo.nii.ac.jp/records/30123#.YJDXm7X7SF4 Kusano et al. (2020)
Deep Flare Net (DeFN) A solar flare prediction model using deep neural networks https://defn.nict.go.jp/index_eng.html Nishizuka et al. (2018)
Solar flare emission model A model for reproducing X-rays and EUV emissions from solar flares   Nishimoto et al. (2020)
Nishimoto et al. (2021)
Kawai et al. (2020)
NonFFF model A realistic non-force-free field modeling of three-dimensional magnetic field in the solar corona   Miyoshi et al. (2020)
SUSANOO A three-dimensional MHD simulation of propagation of solar wind and coronal mass ejections in the inner heliosphere (r < 2AU) on the basis of photospheric magnetic field observations. The modeled time profile of solar wind at the Earth’s position is utilized for a prediction of high-energy electron flux at the geosynchronous orbit http://cidas.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/susanoo/ Shiota and Kataoka (2016)
Shiota (2020)
Solar cycle prediction A solar cycle prediction model using a surface flux transport model   Iijima et al. (2017)
Magnetosphere global model A global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model of geo-magnetosphere and ionosphere system   Tanaka (2015)
WASAVIES A physics-based model for SEP dose estimation anywhere in the atmosphere and designated as a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles https://wasavies.nict.go.jp/ Sato et al. (2018a)
Kataoka et al. (2018)
SECURES Space Environment Customized Risk Estimation for Satellites   Nagatsuma et al. (2021)
MUSCAT Multi-Utility Spacecraft Charging Analysis Tool   Hosoda et al. (2008)
Muranaka et al. (2008
GAIA A whole atmosphere GCM which solves physical and chemical processes from the ground to upper atmosphere under interaction with the ionosphere https://gaia-web.nict.go.jp/index_e.html Jin et al. (2012)
Tao et al. (2020)
Plasma bubble model This model is able to reproduce nonlinear growth of equatorial plasma bubbles by solving the electrodynamics of equatorial ionosphere with very high spatial resolution   Yokoyama et al. (2019)
HF-START High Frequency Simulator Targeting for All Users' Regional Telecommunications https://hfstart.nict.go.jp/ Hozumi et al. (2019)
GIC model Time Domain Simulation of Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC)   Nakamura et al. (2018)
Space weather benchmarks The plausible space weather disasters in Japan with scale and frequency are described and estimated from past studies https://www2.nict.go.jp/spe/benchmark/
(in Japanese)
Ishii et al. (2021)