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Table 1 Effusion rate, cumulative erupted volume, and content of pyroclastic rocks estimated by the topographic method using ALOS-2 images

From: Episode 4 (2019–2020) Nishinoshima activity: abrupt transitions in the eruptive style observed by image datasets from multiple satellites

Eposide 4/stage Date Term (day) Effusion rate Cumurative erupted volume (m3) Content percentage of pyroclastic rocks (%)
(m3 day-1) (m3 s1)
Stage 1 5 Dec 2019–6 Dec 2019 1 380,000 4.40 428,000 14
7 Dec 2019–20 Dec 2019 14 501,000 5.80 7,570,000 6
21 Dec 2019–3 Jan 2020 14 389,000 4.50 13,100,000 13
4 Jan 2020–17 Jan 2020 14 415,000 4.80 18,900,000 15
18 Jan 2020–31 Jan 2020 14 496,000 5.74 26,100,000 3
1 Feb 2020–14 Feb 2020 14 379,000 4.38 31,500,000 5
15 Feb 2020–28 Feb 2020 14 371,000 4.29 36,900,000 2
1 Mar 2020–13 Mar 2020 14 379,000 4.39 42,300,000 4
14 Mar 2020–27 Mar 2020 14 390,000 4.52 47,900,000 4
28 Mar 2020–24 Apr 2020 28 319,000 3.69 57,100,000 3
25 Apr 2020–8 May 2020 14 598,000 6.92 65,700,000 1
9 May 2020–22 May 2020 14 563,000 6.52 73,800,000 4
23 May 2020–5 Jun 2020 14 670,000 7.75 83,400,000 4
6 Jun 2020–19 Jun 2020 14 559,000 6.46 91,400,000 7
20 Jun 2020–29 Jun 2020 10 2,190,000 25.30 113,000,000 45 (69*)
Stage 2 30 Jun 2020–3 Jul 2020 4 2,610,000 30.20 123,000,000 45 (73*)
4 Jul 2020–17 Jul 2020 14 523,000 6.06 130,000,000 75 (88*)
18 Jul 2020–31 Jul 2020 14 187,000 2.16 132,000,000 100
Stage 3 1 Aug 2020–14 Aug 2020 14 8210 0.10 132,000,000 100
15 Aug 2020–20 Aug 2020 6 16,400 0.19 132,000,000 100
  1. The values with asterisks in parentheses in the last column show the results when 50% of the Stage 2 lava is assumed to be derived from the lava-fountain activity