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Fig. 4 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 4

From: Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO)

Fig. 4

Spread-F directogram for Cachimbo, Brazil on 22–23 November 2002 showing the development of disturbed ionospheric conditions starting at F layer sunset. The y-axis is universal time (LT = UT — 3 h); the x-axis is the horizontal distance to the reflectors in the west-east direction. Only off-vertical echoes are shown, and no vertical echoes are included in the plot. The directogram plot is optimized for equatorial locations, with blue colors for eastward and red colors for westward moving irregularities. The ionosphere is quiet until the day/night terminator passes at 22:45 UT; 8 plasma depletions are observed drifting eastward. The depletions labeled “1” and “2” formed east of the station. (courtesy M. Abdu and I. Batista, INPE)

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