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Table 1. Properties of dust particles around the Moon.

From: A future observational plan of dust particles around the Moon by LDM (Lunar Dust Monitor) onboard the orbiter of the next Japanese lunar mission

Dust Origin Kinetic property in heliocentric coordinates
Velocity (mass) Direction of arrival
Interstellar dust Local interstellar cloud 25 km/s* (<10−8 g*) Ecliptic longitude of 252° & ecliptic latitude of 5°*
Interplanetary dust Cometary and asteroidal materials <42 km/s** (<10−5 g**) Anti-apex of the Earth or higher eccentricities and various inclinations
β meteoroids Interplanetary dust swept by solar radiation >42 km/s*** (<10−12 g****) Solar direction
Lunar dust Materials on the lunar surface, regolith >0 km/s***** (unknown) Lunar direction
  1. * Refer to Kimura et al. (2003a, b).
  2. ** Refer to Fechtig (1982) and Grün et al. (1985).
  3. *** Escape velocity at the Earth/Moon location with respect to the Sun's gravity.
  4. **** The mass of which a spherical particle with a density of 2 g/cm3 has a high β factor greater than 0.5. Such dust particles can be accelerated by radiation pressure to above the escape velocity at 1 AU (Zook and Berg, 1975).
  5. ***** Selenocentric velocity measured in an orbit of 100-km altitude.