Coseismic displacement and fault models for the sequence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. The solid and open symbols represent the observed and calculated displacements for the mainshock, respectively. The dotted rectangles show the fault locations of the mainshock, foreshock, largest aftershock, and third-largest aftershock. The solid line in each rectangle shows the upper edge of the fault. A star represents the epicenter of the mainshock. Circles represent those of M > 4 aftershocks occurring until March 20, 2011. (a) Horizontal displacement. (b) Vertical displacement.