Epochs of the SAR data used in this study. We used four SAR data pairs (I1–I4). Two pairs (preseismic pair I1; coseismic pair I3) include the waterfront along Tokyo Bay, and the other two pairs (preseismic pair I2; coseismic pair I4) include the waterfront along midstream and downstream of the Tone River. All data pairs (I1–I4) are used to estimate the change in the surface scattering property using the phase-corrected coherence, while two coseismic pairs (I3, I4) are used to estimate the local surface displacement associated with the soil liquefaction. A pink star represents the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.