(a) Lags with maximum correlation coefficients between the observation and the simulation with (green)/without (red) the SAL effect, (b) optimal SAL factor (β) based on the maximum RMS reduction of the observation, and (c) RMS reduction of the observation by simulated results. These are shown as a function of the observed travel times at each OBP site. The linear fit in (a) shows a slope of 0.85%. Red and black indicate results without the SAL effect (β = 0) and those with the optimal β at each OBP site, respectively. The results using β = 0.015 is shown by green plots in (a) and (c). Triangles and circles indicate results for the 2011 Tohoku and the 2010 Chilean tsunamis, respectively. The values for the plots are listed in Table 1.