Observed and calculated coseismic deformation of the 1891 Nobi earthquake at the triangulation stations and benchmarks. The closed and open vectors and the bars indicate the observed and calculated horizontal displacements and the vertical displacements, respectively. The location of the Neodani and Umehara faults and the Gifu-Ichinomiya line are shown as solid lines and a dashed line, respectively. (a) Horizontal displacements with 95% error ellipses. (b) Vertical displacements. (c) Cross-section of vertical displacement along A—A′. The closed circles and open circles indicate the observed and calculated vertical deformations, respectively. The fault models are indicated by rectangles. Benchmarks are plotted as solid and open squares.