Geologic setting. (a) Locality map and (b) seismic profile showing IODP Sites C0002 and C0009 off Kii Peninsula, Japan, where samples tested in this study were cored. Two other sites referred to in the text are also indicated. The inset at the top right in (a) is an index map of Japan (©2013 Google and ©2013 TerraMetrics) showing the location of map area in (a). NAP, North American plate; PP, Pacific plate; PSP, Philippine Sea plate; kmbsl, kilometers below the sea level. Line X-X′ is the composite seismic line for the seismic profile shown in (b). Yellow arrows are convergence vectors between the Philippine Sea plate and Japan (Seno et al. 1993; Heki 2007). The map in (a) is modified after Underwood et al. (2010), while the seismic profile of (b) is provided by Y. Nakamura of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.