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  1. Thick sediment layers frequently cover the Japan islands’ surface, and their frictional properties significantly affect the shallow slip behavior that occurs during earthquakes. However, laboratory data on the...

    Authors: Kazuo Mizoguchi, Shin-ichi Uehara, Takehiro Hirose and Sachiko Iizuka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:101

    Content type: Full paper

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  2. We make trial binary forecasts for the Kurile–Japan subduction zone for the period 1988–2014 by hypothesizing that seismic quiescence (i.e., the absence of earthquakes of M ≥ 5 for a minimum period of Tq) is a pr...

    Authors: Kei Katsumata and Masao Nakatani

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:100

    Content type: Full paper

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  3. Increasing ice loss of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) due to global climate change affects the orientation of the Earth’s spin axis with respect to an Earth-fixed reference system (polar motion). Here the contr...

    Authors: Franziska Göttl, Andreas Groh, Michael Schmidt, Ludwig Schröder and Florian Seitz

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:99

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Keita Nakamoto, Yoshihiro Hiramatsu, Takahiko Uchide and Kazutoshi Imanishi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:98

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:59

  5. On November 11, 2018, an event generating long-lasting, monotonic long-period surface waves was observed by seismographs around the world. This event occurred at around 09:28 UTC east of the Mayotte Island, in...

    Authors: Hossein Sadeghi and Sadaomi Suzuki

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:97

    Content type: Full paper

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  6. We attempted to reproduce the total electron content (TEC) variation in the Earth's atmosphere from the temporal variation of the solar flare spectrum of the X9.3 flare on September 6, 2017. The flare spectrum...

    Authors: Kyoko Watanabe, Hidekatsu Jin, Shohei Nishimoto, Shinsuke Imada, Toshiki Kawai, Tomoko Kawate, Yuichi Otsuka, Atsuki Shinbori, Takuya Tsugawa and Michi Nishioka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:96

    Content type: Full paper

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  7. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Alexey Kuvshinov, Alexander Grayver, Lars Tøfner‑Clausen and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:94

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:67

  8. The Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) spacecraft is a JAXA mission to Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. MMX will be equipped with the Circum-Martian Dust Monitor (CMDM) which is a newly developed light-weight (

    Authors: Harald Krüger, Masanori Kobayashi, Peter Strub, Georg-Moragas Klostermeyer, Maximilian Sommer, Hiroshi Kimura, Eberhard Grün and Ralf Srama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:93

    Content type: Full paper

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  9. High-resolution Moho and lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary depth models for Vietnam and its surrounding areas are determined based on a recently released geoid model constructed from surface and satellite gra...

    Authors: Dinh Toan Vu, Sylvain Bonvalot, Sean Bruinsma and Luyen K. Bui

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:92

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. Homogeneous and accurate hypocenter distribution along the Japan Trench is important to better understand the process of plate subduction and the occurrence mode of large earthquakes. The seafloor seismic netw...

    Authors: Koji Tamaribuchi, Fuyuki Hirose, Akemi Noda, Yuriko Iwasaki, Kazuhiro Iwakiri and Hiroshi Ueno

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:91

    Content type: Full paper

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  11. In the coupled electric interaction of rock fractures and gas invasion, that is, when gases interact with newly created crack surfaces, the unpaired electrons within the rock crystal defects are thermally stim...

    Authors: Yuji Enomoto, Tsuneaki Yamabe, Shigeki Sugiura and Hitoshi Kondo

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:90

    Content type: Express Letter

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  12. Lateral spatial variations of weak portions at the plate boundary in subduction zones have been estimated primarily by the distribution of slow earthquakes mainly occurring around seismogenic zones. However, t...

    Authors: Takashi Tonegawa, Toshinori Kimura, Kazuya Shiraishi, Suguru Yabe, Yoshio Fukao, Eiichiro Araki, Masataka Kinoshita, Sanada Yoshinori, Seiichi Miura, Yasuyuki Nakamura and Shuichi Kodaira

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:89

    Content type: Full paper

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  13. Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in a quasi-meridional power transmission line on the Kola Peninsula are analyzed during the intervals of Pc5/Pi3 (frequency range from 1.5 to 5 mHz) pulsations recorded ...

    Authors: Nadezda V Yagova, Vyacheslav A Pilipenko, Yaroslav A Sakharov and Vasily N Selivanov

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:88

    Content type: Full paper

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  14. The number of satellites equipped with retroreflectors dedicated to Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) increases simultaneously with the development and invention of the spherical geodetic satellites, low Earth orb...

    Authors: Dariusz Strugarek, Krzysztof Sośnica, Daniel Arnold, Adrian Jäggi, Radosław Zajdel and Grzegorz Bury

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:87

    Content type: Full paper

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  15. The geometries (i.e., dip angles) of active faults from the surface to the seismogenic zone are the most important factors used to evaluate earthquake ground motion, which is crucial for seismic hazard assessm...

    Authors: Hayami Nishiwaki, Takamoto Okudaira, Kazuhiko Ishii and Muneki Mitamura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:86

    Content type: Full paper

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  16. The eastward- and westward-traveling 10-day waves with zonal wavenumbers up to 6 from surface to the middle mesosphere during the recent 12 years from 2007 to 2018 are deduced from MERRA-2 data. On the basis o...

    Authors: Chunming Huang, Wei Li, Shaodong Zhang, Gang Chen, Kaiming Huang and Yun Gong

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:85

    Content type: Full paper

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  17. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Takane Hori, Ryoichiro Agata, Tsuyoshi Ichimura, Kohei Fujita, Takuma Yamaguchi and Takeshi Iinuma

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:84

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:41

  18. Crustal architecture strongly influences the development and emplacement of mineral zones. In this study, we image the crustal structure beneath a metallogenic belt and its surroundings in the Bayankhongor are...

    Authors: Matthew J. Comeau, Michael Becken, Alexey V. Kuvshinov and Sodnomsambuu Demberel

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:82

    Content type: Full paper

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  19. Direct sampling and analysis of fumarolic gas was conducted at Ebinokogen Ioyama volcano, Japan, between December 2015 and July 2020. Notable changes in the chemical composition of gases related to volcanic ac...

    Authors: Takeshi Ohba, Muga Yaguchi, Urumu Tsunogai, Masanori Ito and Ryo Shingubara

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:81

    Content type: Full paper

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  20. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, volcanic unrest has occurred every 2–5 years at Hakone volcano. After the 2015 eruption, unrest activity changed significantly in terms of seismicity and geoche...

    Authors: Kazutaka Mannen, Yuki Abe, Yasushi Daita, Ryosuke Doke, Masatake Harada, George Kikugawa, Naoki Honma, Yuji Miyashita and Yohei Yukutake

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:80

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from solar flares rapidly change the physical composition of the Earth’s thermosphere and ionosphere, thereby causing space weather phenomena such as communicatio...

    Authors: Shohei Nishimoto, Kyoko Watanabe, Toshiki Kawai, Shinsuke Imada and Tomoko Kawate

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:79

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. We present first results for the determination of UT1-UTC using the VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS). During December 2019 through February 2020, a series of 1 h long observing sessions were performed using...

    Authors: Rüdiger Haas, Eskil Varenius, Saho Matsumoto and Matthias Schartner

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:78

    Content type: Express Letter

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  23. Speleothems are ideal archives of environmental magnetism and paleomagnetism, since they retain continuous magnetic signals in stable conditions and can be used for reliable radiometric dating using U-series a...

    Authors: Naoto Fukuyo, Hirokuni Oda, Yusuke Yokoyama, Geoffrey Clark and Yuhji Yamamoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:77

    Content type: Express Letter

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  24. Magnetotelluric (MT) data processing can increase the reliability of measured data. Traditional MT data denoising methods are usually applied to entire MT time-series, which results in the loss of useful MT si...

    Authors: Xian Zhang, Jin Li, Diquan Li, Yong Li, Bei Liu and Yanfang Hu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:76

    Content type: Full paper

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  25. Late Quaternary tectonic deformation of coastal areas is usually examined based on the height distribution of paleo-shorelines observed on marine terraces. However, it is difficult to examine deformation along...

    Authors: Hideaki Goto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:75

    Content type: Express Letter

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  26. Tsunami hazard in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (EMB) has attracted attention following three tsunamis in this basin since 2017 namely the July 2017 and October 2020 Turkey/Greece and the May 2020 offshore C...

    Authors: Mohammad Heidarzadeh and Aditya Riadi Gusman

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:74

    Content type: Full paper

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  27. We use 20 years of continuous magnetic field measurements from the Ørsted, CHAMP and Swarm satellite missions, supplemented by calibrated platform magnetometer data from the CryoSat-2 satellite, to study time var...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Christopher C. Finlay and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:73

    Content type: Full paper

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  28. A tsunami earthquake is an earthquake event that generates abnormally high tsunami waves considering the amplitude of the seismic waves. These abnormally high waves relative to the seismic wave amplitude are r...

    Authors: Akio Katsumata, Masayuki Tanaka and Takahito Nishimiya

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:72

    Content type: Full paper

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  29. In geodesy, a key application of data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO), and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is an interpretation of changes in polar motion exc...

    Authors: Justyna Śliwińska, Jolanta Nastula and Małgorzata Wińska

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:71

    Content type: Full paper

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  30. We study the effects of combination on the observation level (COL) of different space-geodetic techniques and of networks of the same technique and present the corresponding improvement for the determination o...

    Authors: Periklis-Konstantinos Diamantidis, Grzegorz Kłopotek and Rüdiger Haas

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:68

    Content type: Full paper

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  31. This study presents results of mapping three-dimensional (3-D) variations of the electrical conductivity in depths ranging from 400 to 1200 km using 6 years of magnetic data from the Swarm and CryoSat-2 satellite...

    Authors: Alexey Kuvshinov, Alexander Grayver, Lars Tøffner-Clausen and Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:67

    Content type: Full paper

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:94

  32. The parameterization of the magnetospheric field contribution, generated by currents flowing in the magnetosphere is of major importance for the analysis of Mercury’s internal magnetic field. Using a combinati...

    Authors: S. Toepfer, Y. Narita, K. -H. Glassmeier, D. Heyner, P. Kolhey, U. Motschmann and B. Langlais

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:65

    Content type: Full paper

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  33. We developed an operational solar flare prediction model using deep neural networks, named Deep Flare Net (DeFN). DeFN can issue probabilistic forecasts of solar flares in two categories, such as ≥ M-class and...

    Authors: Naoto Nishizuka, Yûki Kubo, Komei Sugiura, Mitsue Den and Mamoru Ishii

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:64

    Content type: Full paper

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  34. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a new method that measures the strain change along a fiber-optic cable and has emerged as a promising geophysical application across a wide range of research and monitorin...

    Authors: Satoshi Ide, Eiichiro Araki and Hiroyuki Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:63

    Content type: Express Letter

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  35. This paper describes and discusses the preprocessing and calibration of the magnetic data taken by the navigational magnetometers onboard the two GRACE satellites, with focus on the almost 10 years period from...

    Authors: Nils Olsen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:62

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. In the present work, we evaluate the accuracy of the Solar Quiet Reference Field (SQRF) model for estimating and predicting the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily field variation in the South America Magnetic ...

    Authors: Sony Su Chen, Clezio Marcos Denardini, Láysa Cristina Araujo Resende, Ronan Arraes Jardim Chagas, Juliano Moro, Régia Pereira da Silva, Carolina de Sousa do Carmo and Giorgio Arlan da Silva Picanço

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:61

    Content type: Full paper

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  37. Propagation of medium-scale gravity waves (GWs) in the thermosphere/ionosphere is observed remotely, using multi-frequency and multi-point continuous Doppler sounding system located in the western part of Czec...

    Authors: Jaroslav Chum, Kateřina Podolská, Jan Rusz, Jiří Baše and Nikolai Tedoradze

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:60

    Content type: Full paper

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  38. Slip phenomena on plate interfaces reflect the heterogeneous physical properties of the slip plane and, thus, exhibit a wide variety of slip velocities and rupture propagation behaviors. Recent findings on slo...

    Authors: Keita Nakamoto, Yoshihiro Hiramatsu, Takahiko Uchide and Kazutoshi Imanishi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:59

    Content type: Full paper

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:98

  39. It is widely recognised that filament disappearances or eruptions are frequently associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Since CMEs are a major source of disturbances of the space environment surroundin...

    Authors: Daikichi Seki, Kenichi Otsuji, Takako T. Ishii, Ayumi Asai and Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:58

    Content type: Full paper

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  40. A solar energetic particle (SEP) event generates a shower of secondary generated particles in the Earth’s atmosphere down to lower altitudes to cause an atmospheric radiation storm (ARS). The high-energy secon...

    Authors: Susumu Saito, Navinda Kithmal Wickramasinghe, Tatsuhiko Sato and Daikou Shiota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:57

    Content type: Full paper

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  41. We present geomagnetic main field and secular variation time series, at 300 equal-area distributed locations and at 490 km altitude, derived from magnetic field measurements collected by the three Swarm satellite...

    Authors: Magnus D. Hammer, Grace A. Cox, William J. Brown, Ciarán D. Beggan and Christopher C. Finlay

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:54

    Content type: Full paper

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