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  1. We investigated changes in the b value of the Gutenberg–Richter’s law in and around the focal areas of earthquakes on March 20 and on May 1, 2021, with magnitude (M) 6.9 and 6.8, respectively, which occurred off ...

    Authors: K. Z. Nanjo and A. Yoshida

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:176

    Content type: Express Letter

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  2. Following the observed pattern of a new geomagnetic jerk every 3–4 years, certain predictions suggested that a new event should occur around 2020 after the one observed around 2017.5. In this work, we explore ...

    Authors: F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco, Santiago Marsal, Saioa A. Campuzano and J. Miquel Torta

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:175

    Content type: Full paper

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  3. The gravity field is one of the Earth’s basic physical fields. The geoid can be calculated and the tectonic activity underground can be inversed by gravity anomaly. With the development of various ship-borne g...

    Authors: Zhimin Shi, Junjian Lang, Xinghui Liang, Zhibo Zhou, Aizhi Guo and Lintao Liu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:174

    Content type: Full paper

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  4. Here we investigate the influence of the lithology and thermal state of the upper crust on earthquake distributions beneath the Wakayama region, southern Honshu, Japan, to better understand the influence of cr...

    Authors: Sumire Maeda, Shinji Toda, Toru Matsuzawa, Makoto Otsubo and Takumi Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:173

    Content type: Express Letter

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  5. Subvolcanic hydrothermal systems can lead to hydrothermal eruptions as well as unrest phenomena without an eruptive event. Historical eruptions and recent unrest events, including ground inflation, demagnetiza...

    Authors: Ryo Tanaka, Yusuke Yamaya, Makoto Tamura, Takeshi Hashimoto, Noritoshi Okazaki, Ryo Takahashi and Toru Mogi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:172

    Content type: Express Letter

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  6. The evolution history of the Sea of Japan back-arc basin remains under debate, involving the opening of sub-basins such as the Japan and Yamato Basins. Detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure will pro...

    Authors: Takeshi Akuhara, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Masanao Shinohara, Tomoaki Yamada, Hajime Shiobara, Yusuke Yamashita, Kimihiro Mochizuki and Kenji Uehira

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:171

    Content type: Full paper

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  7. Lithospheric deformation is a fundamental process in plate tectonics. It is, therefore, critical to determine how the lithosphere responds to geological loads to better understand tectonic processes. The litho...

    Authors: Ming-Ju Xu, Zhao-Cai Wu, Fei Ji, Ai-Guo Ruan, Chun-Feng Li and Jin-Yao Gao

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:170

    Content type: Full paper

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  8. In this paper, we carried out a series of linear analyses on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids whose physical properties strongly vary in space in convecting vessels either of a thr...

    Authors: Masanori Kameyama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:167

    Content type: Full paper

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  9. Ringwoodite and wadsleyite are the high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, which are common in shocked meteorites. They are the major constituent minerals in the terrestrial mantle. NWA 8705, an olivine-phyric sh...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Sen Hu, Nian Wang, Yangting Lin, Lixin Gu, Xu Tang, Xinyu Zou and Mingming Zhang

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:165

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. Newly analysed titanomagnetite–ilmenite (Tim–Ilm) intergrowths from Martian nakhlite meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5790 yielded crystallisation temperature up to 1032 °C and oxygen fugacity (fO2) up to ΔQFM + ...

    Authors: Zilong Wang, Wei Tian and Yankun Di

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:164

    Content type: Express Letter

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  11. Large-amplitude geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are the natural consequences of the solar–terrestrial connection triggered by solar eruptions. The threat of severe damage of power grids due to the GICs...

    Authors: Yusuke Ebihara, Shinichi Watari and Sandeep Kumar

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:163

    Content type: Technical report

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  12. Investigations of the co- and postseismic processes of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide essential information on the seismic cycle in the Japan Trench. Although almost all of the source region lies benea...

    Authors: Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yuto Nakamura and Yusuke Yokota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:162

    Content type: Express Letter

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  13. Reconstructing the history of Philippine Sea (PHS) plate motion is important for better understanding of the tectonics of the surrounding plates. It is generally considered that the PHS plate migrated northwar...

    Authors: Toshitsugu Yamazaki, Shun Chiyonobu, Osamu Ishizuka, Fumisato Tajima, Naoki Uto and Shinichi Takagawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:161

    Content type: Express Letter

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  14. Although solar activity may significantly impact the global environment and socioeconomic systems, the mechanisms for solar eruptions and the subsequent processes have not yet been fully understood. Thus, mode...

    Authors: Kanya Kusano, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Mamoru Ishii, Yoshizumi Miyoshi, Shigeo Yoden, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Ayumi Asai, Yusuke Ebihara, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Tada-Nori Goto, Yoichiro Hanaoka, Hisashi Hayakawa, Keisuke Hosokawa, Hideyuki Hotta, Kornyanat Hozumi, Shinsuke Imada…

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:159

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  15. The visualization of computer simulations is currently undergoing a transition from post-hoc to in-situ visualization in which visualization processes are applied, while the simulation is running. The selectio...

    Authors: Nobuaki Ohno and Akira Kageyama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:158

    Content type: Technical report

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  16. We estimate the mass and energy budgets for the 2018 phreatic eruption of Mt. Motoshirane on Kusatsu–Shirane volcano, Japan, based on data obtained from a network of eight tiltmeters and weather radar echoes. ...

    Authors: Akihiko Terada, Wataru Kanda, Yasuo Ogawa, Taishi Yamada, Mare Yamamoto, Takahiro Ohkura, Hiroshi Aoyama, Tomoki Tsutsui and Shin’ya Onizawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:157

    Content type: Full paper

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  17. A volcanic ash eruption began on March 1, 2018, and a lava flow was observed on March 6 at Shinmoedake volcano in the Kirishima Volcano Group. The small ash eruptions continued until June 27, 2018. The amounts...

    Authors: Yasuhisa Tajima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:156

    Content type: Express Letter

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  18. Natural springs containing volcanic and magmatic components occur in association with these activities. However, features of deeply originated fluids and solutes were less documented from fields, where active ...

    Authors: Takahiro Hosono and Chikashige Yamanaka

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:155

    Content type: Full paper

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  19. We conducted magnetotelluric measurements to investigate a large serpentinite complex in the northern Kamuikotan Zone that intruded a Cretaceous–Paleocene forearc sedimentary sequence. The resistivity model we...

    Authors: Hiroshi Ichihara, Toru Mogi, Toshihiro Uchida, Hideyuki Satoh, Yusuke Yamaya, Masakazu Fujii, Shusaku Yamazaki, Kenji Okazaki and Noriko Tada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:154

    Content type: Express Letter

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  20. Present day crustal displacement rates can be accurately observed at stations of global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and crustal deformation has been investigated by estimating strain-rate fields from d...

    Authors: Tomohisa Okazaki, Yukitoshi Fukahata and Takuya Nishimura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:153

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. We analyze temporal variations in the travel times of both P and S waves (Vp and Vs) for 14 months at Toyohashi (central Japan) with a continuously operating vibration source that could efficiently produce bot...

    Authors: Rina Suzuki, Koshun Yamaoka, Shuhei Tsuji and Toshiki Watanabe

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:152

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imager, EUVI-B, on board the International Space Station (ISS) under the International Space Station–ionosphere-mesosphere-atmosphere plasmasphere cameras (ISS-IMAP) mission was o...

    Authors: Shin’ya Nakano, Yuta Hozumi, Akinori Saito, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Atsushi Yamazaki, Kazuo Yoshioka and Go Murakami

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:151

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. An electrical resistivity model beneath Azumayama Volcano, NE Japan, is explored using magnetotelluric method to probe the magma/hydrothermal fluid distribution. Azumayama is one of the most concerning active ...

    Authors: Masahiro Ichiki, Toshiki Kaida, Takashi Nakayama, Satoshi Miura, Mare Yamamoto, Yuichi Morita and Makoto Uyeshima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:150

    Content type: Full paper

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  24. Polar motion is the movement of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its crust, reflecting the influence of the material exchange and mass redistribution of each layer of the Earth on the Earth's rotation a...

    Authors: Xin Jin, Xin Liu, Jinyun Guo and Yi Shen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:147

    Content type: Full paper

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  25. The east–west component of magnetic field variation (∆D-component) at Davao station (Philippines, geomagnetic latitude: – 2.22˚N) are used to investigate the characteristics of the long-term Inter-Hemispheric Fie...

    Authors: Manjula Ranasinghe, Akiko Fujimoto, Akimasa Yoshikawa and Chandana Jayaratne

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:146

    Content type: Express Letter

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  26. Thellier-type paleointensity experiments associated with partial thermal remanent magnetization checks have been widely used to determine paleointensity values from volcanic and archaeological media. However, ...

    Authors: Doohee Jeong, Qingsong Liu, Yuhji Yamamoto, Yongjae Yu, Xiang Zhao and Huafeng Qin

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:144

    Content type: Full paper

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  27. Basaltic magma becomes more viscous, solid-like (elastic), and non-Newtonian (shear-thinning, non-zero yield stress) as its crystal content increases. However, the rheological effects on bubble bursting and ai...

    Authors: Kana Hashimoto and Ikuro Sumita

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:143

    Content type: Full paper

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  28. This study presents the first hydrogeochemical model of the hydrothermal systems of Turrialba and Irazú volcanoes in central Costa Rica, manifested as thermal springs, summit crater lakes, and fumarolic degass...

    Authors: D. Rouwet, R. Mora-Amador, C. Ramírez, G. González, E. Baldoni, G. Pecoraino, S. Inguaggiato, B. Capaccioni, F. Lucchi and C. A. Tranne

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:142

    Content type: Full paper

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  29. On January 23, 2018, a small phreatic eruption (VEI = 1) occurred at the Motoshirane Pyroclastic Cone Group in the southern part of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano in central Japan. The eruption ejected ash, lapillus,...

    Authors: Nobuko Kametani, Yasuo Ishizaki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto, Fukashi Maeno, Akihiko Terada, Ryuta Furukawa, Ryo Honda, Yoshihiro Ishizuka, Jiro Komori, Masashi Nagai and Shinji Takarada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:141

    Content type: Express Letter

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  30. Van Allen Probes in situ observations are used to examine detailed subpacket structure observed in strong VLF (very low frequency) rising-tone chorus elements observed at the time of a rapid MeV electron energ...

    Authors: John C. Foster, Philip J. Erickson and Yoshiharu Omura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:140

    Content type: Full paper

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  31. Kusatsu-Shirane volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Japan. Phreatic explosions occurred in Mt. Shirane in 1983 and most recently, in 2018, in Mt. Motoshirane. Information on the subsurface structure is c...

    Authors: Takao Koyama, Wataru Kanda, Mitsuru Utsugi, Takayuki Kaneko, Takao Ohminato, Atsushi Watanabe, Hiroshi Tsuji, Taro Nishimoto, Alexey Kuvshinov and Yoshiaki Honda

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:139

    Content type: Express Letter

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  32. The electromagnetic (EM) field variations capable of probing the electrical conductivity of the upper mantle and mantle transition zone have a period range between a few hours and 1 day. At these periods, the ...

    Authors: Géraldine Zenhäusern, Alexey Kuvshinov, Martina Guzavina and Astrid Maute

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:136

    Content type: Full paper

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  33. In the present study, we propose a new approach for determining earthquake hypocentral parameters. This approach integrates computed theoretical seismograms and deep machine learning. The theoretical seismogra...

    Authors: Daisuke Sugiyama, Seiji Tsuboi and Yohei Yukutake

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:135

    Content type: Full paper

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  34. To construct the Mesozoic apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the inner arc of the southwestern Japanese islands (referred to as southwest Japan) and compare it to that of East Asia, a 110 Ma paleomagnetic p...

    Authors: Koji Uno, Yuta Idehara, Daichi Morita and Kuniyuki Furukawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:132

    Content type: Full paper

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  35. In this paper, numerical computations are carried out to investigate the seismo-electromagnetic signals arising from the motional induction effect due to an earthquake source embedded in 3-D multi-layered medi...

    Authors: Hengxin Ren, Ling Zeng, Yao-Chong Sun, Ken’ichi Yamazaki, Qinghua Huang and Xiaofei Chen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:130

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. We study the influence of real structure of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave packets in the Earth’s radiation belts on precipitation of relativistic electrons. Automatic algorithm is used to distinguish isol...

    Authors: Veronika S. Grach, Andrei G. Demekhov and Alexey V. Larchenko

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:129

    Content type: Full paper

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  37. Rapid estimation of the coseismic fault model for medium-to-large-sized earthquakes is key for disaster response. To estimate the coseismic fault model for large earthquakes, the Geospatial Information Authori...

    Authors: Keitaro Ohno, Yusaku Ohta, Satoshi Kawamoto, Satoshi Abe, Ryota Hino, Shunichi Koshimura, Akihiro Musa and Hiroaki Kobayashi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:127

    Content type: Full paper

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