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  1. The global amplitude of the westward propagating quasi-16-day waves (16DW) with wavenumber 1 (Q16W1), the strongest component of 16DW, are derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ER...

    Authors: Wentao Tang, Shaodong Zhang, Chunming Huang, Kaiming Huang, Yun Gong and Quan Gan

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:210

    Content type: Full paper

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  2. High-frequency Doppler (HFD) sounding is one of the major remote sensing techniques used for monitoring the ionosphere. Conventional systems for HFDs mainly utilize analog circuits. However, existing analog sy...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Nakata, Kenro Nozaki, Yuhei Oki, Keisuke Hosokawa, Kumiko K. Hashimoto, Takashi Kikuchi, Jun Sakai, Ichiro Tomizawa and Satoko Saita

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:209

    Content type: Full paper

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  3. Small-scale seismic velocity heterogeneity has been studied through the calculation of peak amplitude ratio as a means to quantify the strength of seismic wave scattering at volcanoes in Japan. This ratio is d...

    Authors: Gugi Ganefianto, Hisashi Nakahara and Takeshi Nishimura

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:207

    Content type: Express Letter

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  4. In this study we performed a detailed analysis on the scale-size of field-aligned currents (FACs) at auroral latitudes, using the well-calibrated magnetic data from the non-dedicated magnetic field mission, Gr...

    Authors: Chao Xiong, Claudia Stolle, Ingo Michaelis, Hermann Lühr, Yunliang Zhou, Hui Wang, Guram Kervalishvili and Jan Rauberg

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:206

    Content type: Full paper

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  5. Poloidal–toroidal magnetic field decomposition is a useful application of the Mie representation and the decomposition method enables us to determine the current density observationally and unambiguously in th...

    Authors: S. Toepfer, Y. Narita, W. Exner, D. Heyner, P. Kolhey, K. -H. Glassmeier and U. Motschmann

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:204

    Content type: Full paper

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  6. Estimation of the traditional transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) impedances of the magnetotelluric tensor for two-dimensional structures can be decoupled from the estimation of the strike di...

    Authors: Rocío F. Arellano-Castro and Enrique Gómez-Treviño

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:203

    Content type: Full paper

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  7. The ionosphere is one of the important sources for magnetospheric plasma, particularly for heavy ions with low charge states. We investigate the effect of solar illumination on the number flux of ion outflow u...

    Authors: Naritoshi Kitamura, Kanako Seki, Kunihiro Keika, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Tomoaki Hori, Masafumi Hirahara, Eric J. Lund, Lynn M. Kistler and Robert J. Strangeway

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:202

    Content type: Full paper

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  8. Thermospheric mass density values around the 400-km altitude in the cusp can be significantly enhanced as compared to regions around the cusp. To gain insights into the extent to which the magnitude of the cus...

    Authors: Tomokazu Oigawa, Hiroyuki Shinagawa and Satoshi Taguchi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:201

    Content type: Full paper

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  9. The Shanxi Rift located in the central part of the North China Craton (NCC) as a boundary between the Ordos block and the Huabei basin. The Shanxi graben system is a Cenozoic rift and originated from back-arc ...

    Authors: Yifang Chen, Jiuhui Chen, ShunCheng Li, Zhanyang Yu, Xuzhou Liu and Xuzhang Shen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:200

    Content type: Full paper

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  10. The southern part of the Ryukyu subduction zone has recorded tsunami events with a recurrence interval of several hundred years. Although their source is controversial, one model suggests that the last 1771 Ya...

    Authors: Masayuki Kano, Aoi Ikeuchi, Takuya Nishimura, Shin’ichi Miyazaki and Takeshi Matsushima

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:199

    Content type: Express Letter

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  11. We describe the way a global model of the geomagnetic field has been built using vector field data acquired by the absolute scalar magnetometers (ASM) running in vector mode on board the Alpha and Bravo satell...

    Authors: Pierre Vigneron, Gauthier Hulot, Jean-Michel Léger and Thomas Jager

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:197

    Content type: Express Letter

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  12. The study of slow earthquake activity, which occurs in the shallow and deep sides of seismogenic zone, is crucial for understanding subduction zones, including variations in frictional properties with depth an...

    Authors: Yusuke Yamashita, Masanao Shinohara and Tomoaki Yamada

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:196

    Content type: Express Letter

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  13. The Whakaari/White Island volcano, located ~ 50 km off the east coast of the North Island in New Zealand, has experienced sequences of quiescence, unrest, magmatic and phreatic eruptions over the last decades....

    Authors: Corentin Caudron, Társilo Girona, Arthur Jolly, Bruce Christenson, Martha Kane Savage, Roberto Carniel, Thomas Lecocq, Ben Kennedy, Ivan Lokmer, Alexander Yates, Ian Hamling, Iseul Park, Geoff Kilgour and Agnès Mazot

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:195

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  14. The Median Tectonic Line (MTL) is a thousand-kilometer-long fault that extends across southwest Japan. Near the Nyugawa region of Shikoku, the MTL comprises (i) a low-angle inactive terrane boundary fault (the MT...

    Authors: Masahiro Miyawaki and Arito Sakaguchi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:194

    Content type: Express Letter

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  15. Using numerical filtering techniques allowing us to reduce noise from sferics, we are able to clearly study a new type of differently structured very low frequency (VLF) radio waves above f = 4 kHz at the grou...

    Authors: Claudia Martinez-Calderon, Jyrki K. Manninen, Jemina T. Manninen and Tauno Turunen

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:191

    Content type: Full paper

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  16. Each International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model released under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy comprises a secular variation component that describes the ...

    Authors: Alexandre Fournier, Julien Aubert, Vincent Lesur and Erwan Thébault

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:190

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  17. Discovering such structures as the third radiation belt (or “storage ring”) has been a major observational achievement of the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes program (renamed the “Van Allen Probes” mission in...

    Authors: Daniel N. Baker

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:189

    Content type: Frontier Letter

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  18. Oxygen is a potential biosignature for terrestrial Earth-like planets. The primary source of oxygen on Earth is oxygenic photosynthesis, which may be limited by the supply of riverine phosphorus. Therefore, ph...

    Authors: Yasuto Watanabe and Eiichi Tajika

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:188

    Content type: Express Letter

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  19. Low-frequency tremors have been widely detected in many tectonic zones, and are often located adjacent to megathrust zones, indicating that their spatiotemporal evolution provides important insights into megat...

    Authors: Hidenobu Takahashi, Kazuya Tateiwa, Keisuke Yano and Masayuki Kano

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:186

    Content type: Express Letter

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  20. Using meteor radar, radiosonde observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data from 12 August to 31 October 2006, we report a dynamical coupling from the tropical lower atmosphere to the mesosphere and lower thermosp...

    Authors: Hao Cheng, Kaiming Huang, Alan Z. Liu, Shaodong Zhang, Chunming Huang and Yun Gong

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:183

    Content type: Full paper

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  21. Pliocene volcanic rocks from south-east Austria were paleomagnetically investigated. Samples were taken from 28 sites located on eight different volcanoes. Rock magnetic investigations revealed that magnetic c...

    Authors: Elisabeth Schnepp, Patrick Arneitz, Morgan Ganerød, Robert Scholger, Ingomar Fritz, Ramon Egli and Roman Leonhardt

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:182

    Content type: Full paper

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  22. Along the Nankai Trough subduction zone, southwest Japan, short-term slow slip events (SSEs) are commonly detected in strain and tilt records. These observational data have been used in rectangular fault model...

    Authors: Takahiro Tsuyuki, Akio Kobayashi, Reiko Kai, Takeshi Kimura and Satoshi Itaba

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:181

    Content type: Full paper

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  23. A volcanic eruption transmits both seismic and infrasound signals. The seismo-acoustic power ratio is widely used to investigate the eruption behaviors and the source dynamics. It is often the case that seismi...

    Authors: Mie Ichihara, Kazuya Yamakawa and Dan Muramatsu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:180

    Content type: Express Letter

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  24. Volcano-hydrothermal systems are governed by complex interactions between fluid transport, and geochemical and mechanical processes. Evidence of this close interplay has been testified by distinct spatial and ...

    Authors: Santina Chiara Stissi, Rosalba Napoli, Gilda Currenti, Andrey Afanasyev and Giordano Montegrossi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:179

    Content type: Full paper

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  25. This study aims to synthesize seismic observations with gravity and magnetic data and to suggest a new scenario on the development of the Harrat Lunayyir (HL) tectonic system on the eastern Red Sea coastline, ...

    Authors: Ali K. Abdelfattah, Chokri Jallouli, Mohamed Fnais, Saleh Qaysi, Hassan Alzahrani and Saad Mogren

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:178

    Content type: Full paper

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  26. On 10 October 2011, a submarine eruption occurred in El Hierro island. Thus, the eruptive process in the Canary islands was reactivated after 40 years of inactivity. The main objective of this work is to evalu...

    Authors: Sonia Pérez-Plaza, Manuel Berrocoso, Belén Rosado, Gonçalo Prates and Fernando Fernández-Palacín

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:177

    Content type: Full paper

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  27. We investigated changes in the b value of the Gutenberg–Richter’s law in and around the focal areas of earthquakes on March 20 and on May 1, 2021, with magnitude (M) 6.9 and 6.8, respectively, which occurred off ...

    Authors: K. Z. Nanjo and A. Yoshida

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:176

    Content type: Express Letter

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  28. Following the observed pattern of a new geomagnetic jerk every 3–4 years, certain predictions suggested that a new event should occur around 2020 after the one observed around 2017.5. In this work, we explore ...

    Authors: F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco, Santiago Marsal, Saioa A. Campuzano and J. Miquel Torta

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:175

    Content type: Full paper

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  29. The gravity field is one of the Earth’s basic physical fields. The geoid can be calculated and the tectonic activity underground can be inversed by gravity anomaly. With the development of various ship-borne g...

    Authors: Zhimin Shi, Junjian Lang, Xinghui Liang, Zhibo Zhou, Aizhi Guo and Lintao Liu

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:174

    Content type: Full paper

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  30. Here we investigate the influence of the lithology and thermal state of the upper crust on earthquake distributions beneath the Wakayama region, southern Honshu, Japan, to better understand the influence of cr...

    Authors: Sumire Maeda, Shinji Toda, Toru Matsuzawa, Makoto Otsubo and Takumi Matsumoto

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:173

    Content type: Express Letter

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:205

  31. Subvolcanic hydrothermal systems can lead to hydrothermal eruptions as well as unrest phenomena without an eruptive event. Historical eruptions and recent unrest events, including ground inflation, demagnetiza...

    Authors: Ryo Tanaka, Yusuke Yamaya, Makoto Tamura, Takeshi Hashimoto, Noritoshi Okazaki, Ryo Takahashi and Toru Mogi

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:172

    Content type: Express Letter

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  32. The evolution history of the Sea of Japan back-arc basin remains under debate, involving the opening of sub-basins such as the Japan and Yamato Basins. Detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure will pro...

    Authors: Takeshi Akuhara, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Masanao Shinohara, Tomoaki Yamada, Hajime Shiobara, Yusuke Yamashita, Kimihiro Mochizuki and Kenji Uehira

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:171

    Content type: Full paper

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  33. Lithospheric deformation is a fundamental process in plate tectonics. It is, therefore, critical to determine how the lithosphere responds to geological loads to better understand tectonic processes. The litho...

    Authors: Ming-Ju Xu, Zhao-Cai Wu, Fei Ji, Ai-Guo Ruan, Chun-Feng Li and Jin-Yao Gao

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:170

    Content type: Full paper

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  34. In this paper, we carried out a series of linear analyses on the onset of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids whose physical properties strongly vary in space in convecting vessels either of a thr...

    Authors: Masanori Kameyama

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:167

    Content type: Full paper

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  35. Ringwoodite and wadsleyite are the high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, which are common in shocked meteorites. They are the major constituent minerals in the terrestrial mantle. NWA 8705, an olivine-phyric sh...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Sen Hu, Nian Wang, Yangting Lin, Lixin Gu, Xu Tang, Xinyu Zou and Mingming Zhang

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:165

    Content type: Full paper

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  36. Newly analysed titanomagnetite–ilmenite (Tim–Ilm) intergrowths from Martian nakhlite meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5790 yielded crystallisation temperature up to 1032 °C and oxygen fugacity (fO2) up to ΔQFM + ...

    Authors: Zilong Wang, Wei Tian and Yankun Di

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:164

    Content type: Express Letter

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  37. Large-amplitude geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are the natural consequences of the solar–terrestrial connection triggered by solar eruptions. The threat of severe damage of power grids due to the GICs...

    Authors: Yusuke Ebihara, Shinichi Watari and Sandeep Kumar

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:163

    Content type: Technical report

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  38. Investigations of the co- and postseismic processes of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide essential information on the seismic cycle in the Japan Trench. Although almost all of the source region lies benea...

    Authors: Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yuto Nakamura and Yusuke Yokota

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:162

    Content type: Express Letter

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  39. Reconstructing the history of Philippine Sea (PHS) plate motion is important for better understanding of the tectonics of the surrounding plates. It is generally considered that the PHS plate migrated northwar...

    Authors: Toshitsugu Yamazaki, Shun Chiyonobu, Osamu Ishizuka, Fumisato Tajima, Naoki Uto and Shinichi Takagawa

    Citation: Earth, Planets and Space 2021 73:161

    Content type: Express Letter

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