Skip to main content

Geophysical comparison of the three eruptions in the 20th century of Usu volcano, Japan

Abstract

Usu volcano has erupted seven times since 1663. The last three eruptions occurred during the 20th century (1910, 1943 and 1977) and were observed by standard instruments. Although the three eruptions displayed different surface manifestations, they were, similarly, volcanisms derived from dacitic magmas.

In this paper, the three eruptions are compared mainly from the viewpoint of magma movements before and during the eruptions on the basis of geophysical data, i.e. explosive, seismic and thermal activities, ground deformations, and level changes in aquifers. Post-eruption activities are also comparatively reviewed.

Some phenomena related to the three eruptions are reinterpreted: for the 1910 eruption, the cryptodome model of the upheaval is rejected, and the tectonic structure of the craterlet line is proposed; for the 1943 and the 1977 eruptions, the ratios between seismic energy release and deformation are discussed; for the 1977 eruption, a tilt model of the sector deformation is proposed and relationships between anomalous changes in the aquifer level and ground upheavals are discussed.

Magnitudes of the three eruptions are estimated. Tentatively, the 1943 and 1977 eruptions are roughly of the same order of magnitude and the 1910 eruption is one order of magnitude smaller.

Reference

  • Anderson, E. M., The dynamics of the formation of cone-sheet, ring-dykes, and caldron-subsidence, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 56, 128–157, 1936.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chouet, B. A., Long-period volcanic seismicity: its source and use in eruption forecasting, Nature, 380, 309–316, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dambara, T., Vertical movements of earth’s crust in relation to the Matsushiro earthquake. J. Geod. Soc. Japan, 12, 18–45, 1966 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  • Fukutomi, T., On formation of Showa-shinzan, Usu volcano, Kagaku, 16, 3–8, 1946 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  • JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency), The eruption of Usu volcano (August 1977–December 1978), Tech. Rep. JMA, 99, 1–204, 1980 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  • Katsui, Y., Y. Oba, K. Onuma, T. Suzuki, Y. Kondo, T. Watanabe, K. Niida, T. Uda, S. Hagiwara, T. Nagao, J. Nishikawa, M. Yamamoto, Y. Ikeda, H. Katagawa, N. Tsuchiya, M. Shirahase, S. Nemoto, S. Yokoyama, T. Soya, T. Fujita, K. Inaba, and K. Koide, Preliminary report of the 1977 eruption of Usu volcano, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., Ser. IV, 18, 385–408, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kizawa, T., A study of earthquakes in relation to volcanic activity (I) and (II), Paper Met. Geophys., 8, 150–169, 1957 and 9, 204–239, 1958.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maekawa, T. and H. Watanabe, Damages caused by ground deformations accompanying the 1977–1978 eruption of Usu volcano, Hokkaido (2nd Report), Geophys. Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 40, 47–54, 1981 (in Japanese with English summary).

    Google Scholar 

  • Minakami, T., Fundamental research for predicting volcanic eruptions (part 1), Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 38, 497–544, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minakami, T., T. Ishikawa, and K. Yagi, The 1944 eruption of volcano Usu in Hokkaido, Japan, Bull. Volcanol., 11, 45–157, 1951.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nemoto, T., M. Hayakawa, K. Takahashi, and S. Oana, Report on the geological, geophysical and geochemical studies of Usu volcano, Rep. Geol. Surv. Japan, 170, 1–149, 1957 (in Japanese with English summary).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niida, K., Y. Katsui, T. Suzuki, and Y. Kondo, The 1977–1978 eruption of Usu volcano, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., Ser. IV, 19, 357–394, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nishida, Y. and E. Miyajima, Subsurface structure of Usu volcano, Japan as revealed by detailed magnetic survey, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 22, 271–285, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogawa, Y., N. Matsushima, H. Oshima, S. Takakura, M. Utsugi, K. Hirano, M. Igarashi, and T. Doi, A resistivity cross-section of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan, by audio-magnetotelluric soundings, Earth Planets Space, 50, 339–346, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Okada, Hm., Earthquake swarm activity of Usu volcano in 1910, Geophys. Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 41, 53–63, 1982 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Okada, Hm., Comparative study of earthquake swarms associated with major volcanic activities, in Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics, edited by D. Shimozuru and I. Yokoyama, pp. 43–61, Terrapub., Tokyo, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • Okada, Hm., H. Watanabe, H. Yamashita, and I. Yokoyama, Seismological significance of the 1977–1978 eruptions and the magma intrusion process of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 9, 311–334, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Omori, F., The Usu-san eruption and earthquake and elevation phenomena, Bull. Imp. Earthq. Inv. Com., 5, 1–137, 1911 and 1913.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sato, D., Preliminary report on the explosion of Usu Volcano, Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 22, 1–46, 1913 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  • Sawada, M., The source mechanism of B-type and explosion earthquakes and the origin of N-type earthquakes observed at Asama Volcano, Central Japan, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 73, 155–265, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seino, M., Seismic activity accompanying the 1977–1978 eruption of Usu volcano, Japan, Paper Met. Geophys., 54, 105–141, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soya, T., Y. Katsui, K. Niida, and K. Sakai, Geological map of Usu volcano, 1:25,000, Geol. Surv. Japan, 1981.

  • Suzuki, S., H. Yamashita, H. Watanabe, H. Okada, and Y. Nishida, Hypocenters of the premonitory earthquakes to the 1977 eruption of Usu volcano, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 3, 181–193, 1980 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanakadate, H. Two types of volcanic dome in Japan, Proc. 4th Pacific Sci. Congr., Java, 695–704, 1929.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yokoyama, I., An interpretation of the 1914 Sakurajima volcano, Proc. Japan Acad., 73, Ser. B, 53–58, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yokoyama, I., Y. Katsui, Y. Oba, and Y. Ehara, Usu Volcano: Its Volcano Geology, History of Eruptions, Present State of Activity and Prevention of Disasters, 254 pp., Com. Prev. Disas, Hokkaido, Sapporo, 1973 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  • Yokoyama, I., H. Yamashita, H. Watanabe, and Hm. Okada, Geophysical characteristics of dacite volcanism—The 1977–1978 eruption of Usu volcano, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 9, 335–358, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yokoyama, I., Seino, M. Geophysical comparison of the three eruptions in the 20th century of Usu volcano, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 52, 73–89 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351616

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351616

Keywords

  • Seismic Energy
  • Earthquake Swarm
  • Lava Dome
  • Precursory Earthquake
  • Summit Crater