Skip to main content

Longitudinal effects in geomagnetic disturbances at mid-latitudes

Abstract

The paper describes the differences in the magnetic disturbance effect on horizontal geomagnetic field (H) and declination (D) at Alibag (India), Lunping (Taiwan), Chichijima (Japan) and Kakioka (Japan). It is suggested that the trapped particles in the earth’s magnetic field lines are guided by the dipole declination and not by the ground declination and follow the direction towards the geomagnetic pole. The disturbance vector is given by sin (ψ - D) where ψ and D are dipole and ground declinations of the station respectively. The mean disturbance daily variation (SD) of H field is similar at all stations but SD of eastward field (Y) is negative at Alibag but positive at Lunping, Chichijima and Kakioka. Similarly, the daily mean values of H field systematically decrease with increasing ring current index (decreasing value of Dst index) for all stations. But declination values are positively related with Dst index at Alibag and negatively related at Lumping, Chichijima and Kakioka. The SSC amplitude in Y field shows negative values at Alibag but positive values at Kakioka. The storm-time variations Dst(H) show negative excursion during the main phase of the storm at Alibag, Lunping, Chichijima and Kakioka. On the other hand, the Dst variations in declination during the main phase show negative excursions at Alibag but positive excursions at Lumping and Chichijima. This shows a very significant longitudinal inequality in storm-time behavior of eastward geomagnetic field at any place on the earth.

References

  1. Akasofu, S. I. and S. Chapman, The ring current, geomagnetic disturbance and the Van Allen radiation belts, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 1321–1350, 1961.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chapman, S., An outline of theory of magnetic storms, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., A95, 1918.

  3. Chapman, S. and V. C. A. Ferraro, A new theory of magnetic storms Part I The initial phase, Terr. Mag. Atmos. Elect., 36, 77–97, 1931a. Part II The initial phase, Terr. Mag. Atmos. Elect., 36, 171–186, 1931b. Part III The initial phase, Terr. Mag. Atmos. Elect., 37, 147–156, 1932a. Part IV The initial phase, Terr. Mag. Atmos. Elect., 37, 421–429, 1932b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Fukushima, N., Declination change of SC, its local time and seasonal dependence at Kakioka, Japan, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 18, 99–101, 1966.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Iyemori, T., Storm-time magnetospheric currents inferred from mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 42, 1249–1265, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Moos, N. A. F., Magnetic observations made at the government observatory, Bombay 1846 to 1905 and their discussions, Part II, The phenomenon and its discussion, Bombay, 1910.

  7. Obayashi, T. and J. A. Jacobs, Sudden commencement of magnetic storms and atmospheric dynamo action, J. Geophys. Res., 62, 589–616, 1957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Rastogi, R. G., Field aligned currents at equatorial latitudes during geomagnetic disturbances, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 20, 319–326, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Rastogi, R. G., Geomagnetic disturbance effects on equatorial electrojet current, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 41, 317–324, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Rastogi, R. G., Remarkable solar cycle and seasonal dependence of the diurnal geomagnetic D-variation of equatorial electrojet station Kodaikanal, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 45, 657–668, 1993a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Rastogi, R. G., Meridional currents during equatorial geomagnetic disturbances, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 5–7, 1993b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Rastogi, R. G., Solar flare effects on zonal and meridional currents at equatorial electrojet station Annamalainagar, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1417–1420, 1996a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Rastogi, R. G., A new relationship between the geomagnetic H and Y fields during disturbed conditions, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 25, 300–307, 1996b.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Rastogi, R. G., Meridional equatorial electrojet currents in the American sector, Annals Geophysicae, 17, 220–230, 1999a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Rastogi, R. G., Signatures of storm sudden commencements in geomagnetic H, Y and Z fields at Indian observatories during 1958–1992, Annals Geophysicae, 17, 1426–1438, 1999b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rastogi, R. G., B. M. Pathan, D. R. K. Rao, T. S. Sastry, and J. H. Sastri, Solar flare effects on the geomagnetic elements during normal and counter electrojet periods, Earth Planets Space, 51, 947–957, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Sano, Y., Morphological studies on sudden commencement of magnetic storms using the rapid run magnetograms during the IGY, Mem. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, 11(1), 1–52, 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Schmidt, A., Erdmagnetismus, Enzyk, Math. Wiss., 6, Leipzig, 1917.

  19. Singer, S. F., A new model of magnetic storms and auroras, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 38, 175–190, 1957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Sugiura, M., Hourly values of equatorial Dst for IGY in Ann. Inter. Geophys. Year, 35, 9–45, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Sugiura, M. and S. Chapman, The average morphology of geomagnetic storm with sudden commencement, Abhandl. Akad. Wiss. Gottingen. Math-Physik. K.I. Sonderh, 4, 53 pp, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Tsunomura, S., Characteristics of geomagnetic sudden commencement observed in middle and low latitudes, Earth Planets Space, 50, 755–772, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Tsunomura, S., T. Toya, Y. Ishii, and S. Teshima, A study of geomagnetic storms on the basis of magnetic observations in Japanese chain observatories, Mem. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, 27, 1–105, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Vestine, E. H., L. Laporte, I. Langiand, and W. E. Scott, The geomagnetic field and its application and analysis, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pub. No. 580, 1947.

  25. Wilson, C. R. and M. Sugiura, Hydromagnetic interpretation of sudden commencement of magnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 4097–4111, 1961.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. G. Rastogi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rastogi, R.G., Winch, D.E. & James, M.E. Longitudinal effects in geomagnetic disturbances at mid-latitudes. Earth Planet Sp 53, 969–979 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351694

Download citation

Keywords

  • Magnetic Storm
  • Geomagnetic Storm
  • Ring Current
  • Disturbance Effect
  • Sudden Commencement