- Open Access
Visualization and criticality of magnetotail field topology in a three-dimensional particle simulation
Earth, Planets and Space volume 53, pages1011–1019(2001)
We present the temporal evolution of magnetic field topology in the magnetotail with a southward IMF in order to identify the magnetic reconnection. The magnetic field topology is uniquely determined by the eigenvalues of the critical points, if they are not degenerated. This is because the critical points, their number, and the rules between them characterize the whole magnetic field pattern. At the critical points, the magnetics become zero. The magnetic vector field curves and surfaces are both integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points including the Earth’s dipole magnetic field. The skeleton that includes the critical points, characteristic curves, and surfaces provides the three-dimensional topological structure of the reconnection. The change of the skeleton, i.e. the change of the topology, has revealed the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. Namely, three-dimensional “X-points” or the more-than-two critical points that are saddle and connected each other are unstable and can move, vanish, and generated.
Arnold, V. I., Ordinary differential equation, Springer, 1981.
Buneman, O., TRISTAN: The 3-D, E-M particle code, in Computer Space Plasma Physics, Simulation Techniques and Software, edited by H. Matsumoto and Y. Omura, pp. 67–84, Terra Sci., Tokyo, 1993.
Buneman, O., K.-I. Nishikawa, and T. Neubert, Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction as simulated by a 3D EM particle code, Space Plasmas: Coupling Between Small and Medium Scale Processes, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 86, edited by M. Ashour-Abdalla, T. Chang, and P. Dusenbery, pp. 347–352, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1995.
Lau, Y.-T. and J. M. Finn, Three-dimensional kinematic reconnection in the presence of field nulls and closed field lines, Astrophys. J., 88, 672–691, 1990.
Lindman, E. L., Free-space boundary conditions for the time dependent wave equation, J. Comp. Phys., 18, 66–78, 1975.
Nishikawa, K.-I., Particle entry into the magnetosphere with a southward IMF as simulated by a 3-D EM particle code, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 17,631–17,641, 1997.
Nishikawa, K.-I., Reconnections at near-earth magnetotail and substorms studied by a 3-D EM particle code, Geospace Mass and Energy Flow, edited by J. L. Horwitz, W. K. Peterson, and D. L. Gallagher, AGU Geophys. Monograph, 104, pp. 175–181, 1998a.
Nishikawa, K.-I., Particle entry through reconnection grooves in the magnetopause with a dawnward IMF as simulated by a 3-D EM particle code, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1609–1612, 1998b.
Nishikawa, K.-I., O. Buneman, and T. Neubert, Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interaction as Simulated by a 3-D EM Particle Code, Astrophys. Space Sci., 227, 265, 1995, also in Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology, edited by A. T. Peratt, pp. 265–276, Kluwer Academic Pub., 1995.
Swift, D. W., Use of a hybrid code for global-scale plasma simulation, J. Comp. Phys., 126, 109–121, 1996.
Walker, R. J. and T. Ogino, A global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the origin and evolution of magnetic flux ropes in the Magnetotail, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 48, 765–780, 1996.
About this article
Cite this article
Cai, D., Li, Y., Ichikawai, T. et al. Visualization and criticality of magnetotail field topology in a three-dimensional particle simulation. Earth Planet Sp 53, 1011–1019 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351698
- Solar Wind
- Magnetic Reconnection
- Magnetic Vector
- Magnetic Field Topology
- Topology Rule