- Open Access
Spectral characteristics of scintillations producing ionospheric irregularities in the Indian region
Earth, Planets and Space volume 57, pages47–59(2005)
VHF amplitude scintillations were recorded at Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.7°E; 0.6°N dip Latitude), Pondicherry (12°N, 79.1°E; 4.4°N dip Latitude) and Mumbai, (19°N, 73°E; 13.5°N dip Latitude) for the years 1992–1996 using the 250 MHz radio beacon from the geostationary satellite FLEETSAT (73°E). The recorded digital scintillation data for few nights are analyzed to estimate scintillation index (S4), fade rates, auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities for every 2.5 minute sample during the period of the scintillation activity. The power spectral slopes are shallower for the scintillation at the generation phase and steeper towards the decay phase, which indicates the erosion of smaller scale sizes towards the decay phase.
Aarons, J., Global morphology of ionospheric scintillations, Proc. IEEE, 70, 360–378, 1982.
Abdu, M. A., R. T. De Medeiros, and J. H. A. Sobral, Equatorial spread- F instability conditions as determined from ionosonde observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 9, 692–695, 1982.
Abdu, M. A., R. T. De Medeiros, J. H. A. Sobral, and J. A. Bittencourt, Spread-F plasma bubble vertical rise velocities determined from spaced ionosonde observations, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 9197–9204, 1983.
Anderson, D. N. and G. Haerendel, The motion of depleted plasma regions in the equatorial ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 4251–4256, 1979.
Balsley, B. B., G. Haerendal, and R. A. Greenwald, Equatorial Spread-F: recent observations and new interpretations, J. Geophy. Res., 77, 5625–5628, 1972.
Banerjee, P. K., R. S. Dabas, and B. M. Reddy, C and L band transionospheric scintillation experiment: Some results for applications to Satellite Radio Systems, Radio Sci., 27(6), 955–969, 1992.
Basu, Su. and S. Basu, Equatorial scintillations, Progress Science ISEA-6, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 47, 753–768, 1985.
Basu, S. and H. E. Whitney, The temporal structure of intensity scintillation near the magnetic equator, Radio Sci., 18(2), 263–271, 1983.
Basu, S., J. P. McClure, S. Basu, W. B. Hanson, and J. Aarons, Coordinated study of equatorial scintillation and in situ and radio observations of nighttime F region irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 5119–5130, 1980.
Bhattacharyya, A. and R. G. Rastogi, Amplitude scintillation during early and late phases of evolution of irregularities in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere, Radio Sci., 20(4), 935–946, 1985.
Bhattacharyya, A. and R. G. Rastogi, Structure of ionospheric irregularities from amplitude and phase scintillation observations, Radio Sci., 26(2), 439–449, 1991.
Bramley, E. N. and R. Browning, Mid-latitude ionospheric scintillation of geostationary satellite signals at 137 MHz, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 40, 1247–1255, 1978.
Briggs, B. H. and I. A. Parkin, On the variation of radio star and satellite scintillations with zenith angle, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 25, 339–366, 1963.
Chandra, H., Equatorial spread-F—Recent developments, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 19, 215–224, 1990.
Chandra, H., Hari Om Vats, G. Sethia, M. R. Deshpande, R. G. Rastogi, J. H. Sastri, and B. S. Murthy, Ionospheric scintillations associated with features of equatorial ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., 35, 145–151, 1979.
Chandra, H., G. D. Vyas, H. S. S. Sinha, R. N. Mishra, and S. Prakash, Ionospheric scintillation observations from SHAR, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54, 167–172, 1992.
Chandra, H. et al., Co-ordinated multistation VHF scintillation observations in India during March-April 1991, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 22, 69–81, 1993.
Cole, K. D., Formation of field-aligned irregularities in the magnetosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 33, 741–750, 1971.
Dungey, J. W., Convective diffusion in the equatorial F region, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 9, 304–310, 1956.
Dyson, P. L., J. P. McClure, and W. B. Hanson, In situ measurements of the spectral characteristics of F region ionospheric irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 1497–1502, 1974.
Elkin, T. J. and M. D. Papagiannis, Measurement and interpretation of power spectrum of ionospheric scintillation at a sub-auroral location, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 4105–4115, 1969.
Fejer, B. G and M. C. Kelley, Ionospheric irregularities, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 18, 401–454, 1980.
Fremouw, E. J., R. L. Leadbrand, R. C. Livingston, M. D. Cousins, C. L. Rino, B. C. Fair, and R. A. Long, Early results from the DNA wide band satellite experiment-complex signal scintillation, Radio Sci., 13, 167–187, 1978.
Haerendal, G., Report, Max Planck Institute fur Physik und Astrophysik, Garching, West Germany, 1973.
Kelley, M. C. and J. P. McClure, Equatorial Spread-F: A review of recent experimental results, J. Atmos. Ter. Phys., 43, 427–435, 1981.
Kersley, L. and H. Chandra, Power spectra of VHF intensity scintillations from F2 and E region ionospheric irregularities, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 46(8), 667–672, 1984.
Krishnamoorthy, K., C. R. Reddy, and B. V. Krishnamurthy, Nighttime ionospheric scintillations at the magnetic equator, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 41, 123–134, 1979.
Ossakow, S. L., Spread-F theories—a review, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 43, 437–452, 1981.
Pathak, K. N., R. D. Jivrajani, B. Mathew, H. P. Joshi, and K. N. Iyer, Study of ionospheric scintillations near the crest of equatorial anomaly in India using digital data base, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 24, 138–150, 1995.
Pathan, B. M., P. V. Koparkar, R. G. Rastogi, and D. R. K. Rao, Dynamics of ionospheric irregularities producing VHF radio wave scintillations at low latitudes, Ann. Geophys., 9, 126–132, 1991.
Prakash, S., S. Pal, and H. Chandra, In-situ studies of equatorial spread-F over SHAR-steep gradients in the bottomside F-region and transitional wavelength results, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 53(10), 977–986, 1991.
Rastogi, R. G., Solar cycle effect in radio wave scintillations at Huancayo, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 11, 215–221, 1982.
Rastogi, R. G. and R. F. Woodman, VHF radiowave scattering due to range and frequency types of equatorial spread-F, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 40, 485–491, 1978.
Rastogi, R. G., H. Chandra, and M. R. Deshpande, Equatorial radio scintillations of ATS-6 radio beacons: Phase II Ootacamund 1975-76, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 11, 240–246, 1982.
Rufenach, C. L., Power law wavenumber spectrum deduced from ionospheric scintillation observations, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 4761–4772, 1972.
Singleton, D. G., Power spectra of ionospheric scintillations, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 36, 113–133, 1974.
Somayajulu, Y. V., S. C. Garg, R. S. Dabas, Lakha Singh, T. R. Tyagi, B. Loknadhan, S. Ramkrishna, and G. Navneeth, Multistation study of nighttime scintillations in low latitudes: Evidence of control by equatorial F region irregularities, Radio Sci., 19, 707–718, 1984.
Sushil Kumar, A. K. Gwal, P. V. S. Rama Rao et al., Co-ordinated observations of VHF scintillations in India during February-March 1993, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 29, 22–29, 2000.
Taur, R. R., Ionospheric scintillations at 4 to 6 GHz, COMSAT Tech. Rev., 3, 145–163, 1973.
Umeki, R., C. H. Liu, and C. K. Yeh, Multifrequency spectra of ionospheric amplitude scintillations, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 2752–2760, 1977.
Vyas, G. D. and H. Chandra, VHF scintillation and spread-F in the anomaly crest region, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 23, 157–164, 1994.
Woodman, R. F. and S. Basu, Comparison between ‘in-situ’ spectral measurements of equatorial F region irregularities backscatter observations at 3 m wavelength, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 869–872, 1978.
About this article
Cite this article
Banola, S., Pathan, B.M., Rao, D.R.K. et al. Spectral characteristics of scintillations producing ionospheric irregularities in the Indian region. Earth Planet Sp 57, 47–59 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351805
- Equatorial ionosphere
- ionospheric irregularities
- VHF Scintillation
- fade rate