Open Access

Distinguished seismological and electromagnetic features of the impending global failure: Did the 7/9/1999 M5.9 Athens earthquake come with a warning?

  • Panayiotis Kapiris111Email author,
  • Konstantinos Nomicos211,
  • George Antonopoulos111,
  • John Polygiannakis111,
  • Konstantinos Karamanos311,
  • John Kopanas111,
  • Athanassios Zissos411,
  • Athanassios Peratzakis111 and
  • Konstantinos Eftaxias111
Earth, Planets and Space201457:BF03351818

Received: 14 March 2003

Accepted: 15 January 2005

Published: 20 June 2014


Clear VLF electromagnetic (EM) anomalies were detected prior to the Athens earthquake (EQ). We attempt to establish the hypothesis that these emissions were launched from the pre-focal area during micro-fracturing process. The spectral analysis in terms of fractal dynamics reveals that distinquished alterations in the associated scaling parameters emerge as the EQ is approached. These alterations suggests that the evolution of the Earth’s crust towards the “critical point” takes place not only in the seismological sense but also in the pre-fracture EM sense. VAN-signals and space-time TIR-signals were also detected prior to the Athens EQ. These anomalies, as well as the fault modeling of the Athens EQ obtained by interferometric combinations of ERS2 SAR images bring further support for the confidence in the reliability of our conclusions.

Key words

Earthquake prediction wavelet analysis intermittent criticality electromagnetic emissions Athens earthquake fracture scaling laws fault nucleation