- Open Access
Pitch angle diffusion of electrons at the boundary of the lunar wake
Earth, Planets and Space volume 57, pages885–894(2005)
Velocity distribution of the solar wind electrons that penetrate through the lunar wake boundary is investigated by calculating orbits of the electrons injected into model structures of layers of electric fields. Only the electrons with sufficient energy to overcome the potential difference penetrate through the wake boundary. The electrons injected along the magnetic field lines which intersect the model structure undergo pitch angle scattering due to electric field component perpendicular to the magnetic field. After the passage through the electric field, the electrons have significant perpendicular component of velocity as well as the parallel component larger than a lower limit, which is dependent on the electric potential of the wake boundary. The velocity distribution can account for the cyclotron resonance with sunward-propagating whistler mode waves that were detected by GEOTAIL at 27 lunar radii upstream of the moon on October 25, 1994.
Birch, P. C. and S. C. Chapman, Correction to “Particle-in-cell simulations of the lunar wake with high phase resolution”, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2669, 2001.
Birch, P. C. and S. C. Chapman, Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the lunar wake, Phys. Plasmas, 9, 1785–1789, 2002.
Bosqued, J. M., N. Lormant, H. Rème, C. d’Uston, R. P. Lin, K. A. Anderson, C. W. Carlson, R. E. Ergun, D. Larson, J. McFadden, M. P. McCarthy, G. K. Parks, T. R. Sanderson, and K.-P. Wenzel, Moonsolar wind interaction: First results from the WIND/3DP experiment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1259–1262, 1996.
Colburn, D. S., R. G. Currie, J. D. Mihalov, and C. P. Sonett, Diamagnetic solar-wind cavity discovered behind moon, Science, 158, 1040–1042, 1967.
Farrell, W. M., R. J. Fitzenreiter, C. J. Owen, J. B. Byrnes, R. P. Lepping, K. W. Ogilvie, and F. Neubauer, Upstream ULF waves and energetic electrons associated with the lunar wake: Detection of precursor activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1271–1274, 1996.
Farrell, W. M., M. L. Kaiser, J. T. Steinberg, and S. D. Bale, A simple simulation of a plasma void: Applications to Wind observations of the lunar wake, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23635–23653, 1
Feldman, W. C., J. R. Asbridge, S. J. Bame, M. D. Montgomery, and S. P. Gary, Solar wind electrons, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4181–4196, 1975.
Futaana, Y., S. Machida, T. Saito, A. Matsuoka, and H. Hayakawa, Counterstreaming electrons in the near vicinity of the moon observed by plasma instruments on board NOZOMI, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18729–18740, 2001.
Gosling, J. T., D. N. Baker, S. J. Bame, W. C. Feldman, R. D. Zwickl, and E. J. Smith, Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 8519–8535, 1987.
Guio, P. and H. L. Pécseli, Phase space structures generated by an absorbing obstacle in a streaming plasma, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03806, 2004.
Lin, R. P., D. L. Mitchell, D. W. Curtis, K. A. Anderson, C. W. Carlson, J. McFadden, M. H. Acuña, L. L. Hood, and A. Binder, Lunar surface magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind: Results from Lunar Prospector, Science, 281, 1480–1484, 1998.
McComas, D. J., J. T. Gosling, J. L. Phillips, S. J. Bame, J. G. Luhmann, and E. J. Smith, Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind: Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6907–6916, 1989.
Mukai, T., S. Machida, Y. Saito, M. Hirahara, T. Terasawa, N. Kaya, T. Obara, M. Ejiri, and A. Nishida, The low energy particle (LEP) experiment onboard the GEOTAIL satellite, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 46, 669–692, 1994.
Nakagawa, T., Y. Takahashi, and M. Iizima, GEOTAIL observation of upstream ULF waves associated with lunar wake, Earth Planets Space, 55, 569–580, 2003.
Ness, N. F. and K. H. Shatten, Detection of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations stimulated by the lunar wake, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 6425–6438, 1969.
Ness, N. F., K.W. Behannon, H. E. Taylor, and Y. C. Whang, Perturbations of the interplanetary magnetic field by the lunar wake, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 3421–3440, 1968.
Ogilvie, K.W., J. T. Steinberg, R. T. Fitzenreiter, C. J. Owen, A. J. Lazarus, W. M. Farrell, and R. B. Torbert, Observation of the lunar plasma wake from the WIND spacecraft on December 27, 1994, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1255–1258, 1996.
Owen, C. J., R. P. Lepping, K. W. Ogilvie, J. A. Slavin, W. M. Farrell, and J. B. Byrnes, The lunar wake at 6.8 RL: WIND magnetic field observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1263–1266, 1996.
Phillips, J. L., J. T. Gosling, D. J. McComas, S. J. Bame, and S. P. Gary, and E. J. Smith, Anisotropic thermal electron distributions in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6563–6579, 1989.
Pilipp, W. G., H. Miggenrieder, M. D. Montgomery, K.-H. Mühlhäuser, H. Rosenbauer, and R. Schwenn, Characteristicd of electron velocity distribution functionss in the solar wind derived from the Helios plasma experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1075–1092, 1987.
Schubert, G. and B. R. Lichtenstein, Observations of moon-plasma interactions by orbital and surface experiments, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12, 592–626, 1974.
About this article
Cite this article
Nakagawa, T., Iizima, M. Pitch angle diffusion of electrons at the boundary of the lunar wake. Earth Planet Sp 57, 885–894 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351866
- Lunar wake
- pitch angle diffusion
- electric field
- wake potential structure
- electron distribution function