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Open Access

Caldera geometry determined by the depth of the magma chamber

Earth, Planets and Space201457:BF03351879

Received: 20 May 2005

Accepted: 12 September 2005

Published: 20 June 2014


The depth of the magma chamber is shown to be an important factor governing the initial type, scale, and collapse of a caldera. The collapse of the magma chamber is approximated by the contraction of a sphere in an elastic medium, and the distribution of plastic and/or rupturing area on the surface is calculated using the Coulomb failure criterion under the assumption of an elastic-perfectly plastic material. It is found that the necessary contraction for the formation of a caldera is described by fifth-power polynomial expression of the depth of the magma chamber, and that the radius and geometry of the caldera are dependent on the depth of the magma chamber.

Key words

Calderamagma chambercaldera geometrydepth of magma chambernumerical simulation