Skip to main content

Volume 58 Supplement 1

Special Issue: Special Section for the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture Earthquake (1)

Rupture process of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, earthquake


The 2005 West off Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, earthquake (MS 6.7) is a moderate-size crustal event. The rupture process of this earthquake was inferred from strong motion data. It is observed regardless of epicentral distance and azimuth that the initial P-wave with a small amplitude continued for 2.5–4 s, suggesting prominent initial rupture. The duration of the initial rupture was estimated to be 3.3 s from travel time analysis. Inversion analysis shows that the initial rupture continued for 3.5 s and the overall rupture finished within 10 s. An area of large slip with two peaks of slip amount appeared to the southeast of the hypocenter, and the location of the large-slip area is consistent with the origin of the main rupture inferred from travel time analysis. Small amount of slip was found at and around the hypocenter, and the rupture velocity was slow there. The seismic moment of this earthquake was estimated to be 5.7 × 1018 Nm (Mw 6.4). The maximum stress drop calculated from the derived slip distribution exceeded 10 MPa. An area of negative stress drop expanded, corresponding to the distribution of small slip. Forward modeling of the observed waveforms suggests that the negative stress drop is not fully attributable to poor resolution of inversion analysis for small amount of slip. Since dynamic stress drop should be positive around the hypocenter so that rupture propagates over the entire fault, it is plausible that the negative stress drop appeared after healing.


  • Aoi, S., K. Obara, S. Hori, K. Kasahara, and Y. Okada, New strong-motion observation network: KiK-net, EOS, Trans. AGU, 81, F863, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asano, K. and T. Iwata, Source process and near-source ground motions of the 2005West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 93–98, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beroza, G. C. and W. L. Ellsworth, Properties of the seismic nucleation phase, Tectonophysics, 261, 209–227, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gomberg, J. S., K. M. Shedlock, and S.W. Roecker, The effects of S-wave arrival times on the accuracy of hypocenter estimation, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 80, 1605–1628, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horikawa, H., Earthquake doublet in Kagoshima, Japan: Rupture of asperities in a stress shadow, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 91, 112–127, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ito, Y., K. Obara, T. Takeda, K. Shiomi, T. Matsumoto, S. Sekiguchi, and S. Hori, Initial rupture fault, main-shock fault, and aftershock faults: Fault geometry and bends inferred from centroid moment tensor inversion of the 2005 west off Fukuoka prefecture earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 69–74, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kinoshita, S., Kyoshin net (K-NET), Seismol. Res. Lett., 69, 309–332, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kubota, Y., M. Yamamoto, T. Miyatake, and T. Mikumo, Static stress drop distribution of large earthquakes, Programme and Abstracts of Japan Earth and Planetary Science Joint Meeting, 1, 791, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsu’ura, M. and Y. Hasegawa, A maximum likelihood approach to nonlinear inversion under constraints, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 47, 179–187, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miyatake, T., Dynamic rupture processes of inland earthquakes in Japan: weak and strong asperities, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1041–1044, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamichi, S. and H. Kawase, Broadband strong motion simulation in Fukuoka City based on a three-dimensional basin structure and a hybrid method, Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, AIJ, 560, 83–91, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakata, T. and T. Imaizumi, Digital Active Fault Map of Japan, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Okada, Y., Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 82, 1018–1040, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scholz, C. H., Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, 2nd edition, 471 pp, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sekiguchi, H., S. Aoi, R. Honda, N. Morikawa, T. Kunugi, and H. Fujiwara, Rupture process of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake obtained from strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 37–43, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takenaka, H., T. Nakamura, Y. Yamamoto, G. Toyokuni, and H. Kawase, Precise location of the fault plane and the onset of the main rupture of the 2005West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 75–80, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takeo, M., Near-field synthetic seismograms taking into account of the effects of anelasticity—The effects of anelastic attenuation on seismograms caused by a sedimentary layer, Meteorol. Geophys., 36, 245–257, 1985 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toda, S. and H. Horikawa, Stress transferred by the M 7.0 Fukuoka-kenseiho- oki earthquake: Influence on the Kego Fault beneath the city of Fukuoka, Abstracts of the 2005 Japan Earth and Planetary Science Joint Meeting, x113p-025, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Umeda, Y., T. Yamashita, T. Tada, and N. Kame, Possible mechanisms of dynamic nucleation and arresting of shallow earthquake faulting, Tectonophysics, 261, 179–192, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New, improved version of Generic Mapping Tools released, Eos, 79, 579, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Haruo Horikawa.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Horikawa, H. Rupture process of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, earthquake. Earth Planet Sp 58, 87–92 (2006).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • 2005 Fukuoka earthquake
  • strong motion data
  • nucleation phase
  • dynamic stress drop
  • negative stress drop