- Open Access
Stress change prior to the major events in the 1989 earthquake swarm off the eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan
Earth, Planets and Space volume 58, pages305–314(2006)
We investigate a temporal change in a stress parameter of earthquakes that occurred in the 1989 swarms off the eastern Izu Peninsula in Japan. We use the energy index (EI), which have been monitored in deep South African gold mines for predicting major events, as an estimate of apparent stress that is proportional to the ratio of seismic energy (E) to seismic moment (Mo). EI measures an excess or shortage in E with respect to the empirical relationship between E and Mo. We check that EI is almost proportional to the apparent stress for the ranges of Mo and frequency for our analysis, although E is underestimated due to the artifact of limited frequency band of monitoring. The largest events (M = 5.2 and 5.5) took place off the tip of a vertical crack, which opened associated with magma intrusion. While the opening continued to load the source areas of the M 5.2 and 5.5, we find significant decrease in EI prior to the events. Based on the experimental result that the stress decreases when yielding takes place prior to final failure, we interpret this observation as yielding in the vicinity of the large earthquake hypocenters, following a rapid increase in stress caused by magma intrusion.
Abercrombie, R. E., Earthquake Source Scaling Relationships from —1 to 5 ML using seismograms recorded at 2.5-km depth, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 24015–24036, 1995.
Abercrombie, R. E. and J. Mori, Occurrence patterns of foreshocks to large earthquakes in the western United States, Nature, 381, 303–307, 1996.
Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Freeman, San Francisco, 1980.
Azimi, Sh. A., A. V. Kalinin, V. V. Kalinin, and B. L. Pivovarov, Impulse and transient characteristics of media with linear and quadratic absorption laws, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 2, 88–93, 1968.
Boatwright, J., A spectral theory for circular seismic sources; simple estimates of source dimension, dynamic stress drop, and radiated seismic energy, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 70, 1–26, 1980.
Brudy, M., M. D. Zoback, K. Fuchs, F. Rummel, and J. Baumgartner, Estimation of the complete stress tensor to 8 km depth in the KTB scientific drill holes: Implications for crustal strength, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18453–18475, 1997.
Brune, J. N., Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4997–5002, 1970.
Burridge, R. and L. Knopoff, Model and theoretical seismicity, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.
Carlson, J. M. and J. S. Langer, Properties of earthquakes generated by fault dynamics, Phys. Rev. Lett., 62, 2632–2635, 1989.
COMRO; Chamber of Mines Research Organization, in An Industry Guide to Methods of Ameliorating the Hazards of Rockfalls and Rockbursts, Chamber of Mines of South Africa, 114 pp, 1988.
Dieterich, J. H., A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601–2618, 1994.
Dieterich, J., V. Cayol, and P. Okubo, The use of earthquake rate change as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano, Nature, 408, 457–460, 2000.
Earthquake Prediction Information Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, Seismic Activity off East Coast of Izu-Peninsula, 1989 and Strain Changes Observed by the Borehole Strainmeter, Rep. Coord. Comm. Earthq. Predict., 43, 284–289, 1990 (in Japanese).
Eshelby, J. D., The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 241, 376–396, 1957.
Fukuyama, E., S. Kinoshita, and F. Yamamizu, Unusual high-stress drop subevent during the M5.5 earthquake, the largest event of the 1989 Itooki swarm activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 641–644, 1991.
Gibowicz, S. J. and A. Kijko, An Introduction to Mining Seismology, Academic Press, San Diego, 1994.
Ide, S. and G. C. Beroza, Does apparent stress vary with earthquake size?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3349–3352, 2001.
Iio, Y., Scaling relation between earthquake size and duration of faulting for shallow earthquakes in seismic moment between 1010 and 1025 dyne·cm, J. Phys. Earth, 34, 127–169, 1986.
Ishii, H., T. Ohkura, and The Research Group for Semi-controlled Experiment for Earthquake Generation Process in South African Deep Gold Mine, Strain monitoring and earthquake generation in South African deep gold mine, Chikyu Monthly, 20, 419–422, 1998 (in Japanese).
Kanamori, H., J. Mori, E. Hauksson, T. H. Heaton, L. K. Hutton, and L. M. Jones, Determination of earthquake energy release and ML using TERRAscope, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 83, 330–346, 1993.
Kato, N., K. Yamamoto, H. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Strain-rate effect on frictional strength and the slip nucleation process, Tectonophys., 211, 269–282, 1992.
Kawakata, H. and M. Shimada, Frequency-magnitude relation of AE in fracture process of rocks at high confining pressures, Proc. 8th Int. Congr. Rock Mech., 1, 207–210, 1995.
Kawakata, H., A. Cho, T. Kiyama, T. Yanagidani, K. Kusunose, and M. Shimada, Three-dimensional observations of faulting process in westerly granite under uniaxial and triaxial conditions by X-ray CT scan, Tectonophys., 313, 293–305, 1999.
Keilis-Borok, V. I., Investigation of the mechanism of earthquakes, Sov. Res. Geophys. (English Tlansl.), 4, 29, 1960.
Kostrov, V. V., Seismic moment and energy of earthquakes, and seismic flow of rock, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 1, 13–21, 1974.
Lankford, J., The role of tensile microfracture in the strain rate dependence of compressive strength of fine-grained limestone-analogy with strong ceramics, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 18, 173–175, 1981.
Madariaga, R., Dynamics of an expanding circular fault, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 66, 639–666, 1976.
Maeda, K., Time distribution of immediate foreshocks obtained by a stacking method, Pure Appl. Geophys., 155, 381–394, 1999.
Matsumura, S., T. Ohkubo, and M. Imoto, Seismic swarm activity in and around the Izu Peninsula preceding the volcanic eruption of July 13, 1989, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 93–106, 1991.
Mendecki, A. J., Quantitative seismology and rock mass stability, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 178–219, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.
Meredith, P. G., I. G. Main, and C. Jones, Temporal variation in seismicity during quasi-static and dynamic rock failure, Tectonophys., 175, 249–268, 1990.
Ogasawara, H., S. Sato, S. Nishii, K. Mino, and Research Group for Earth-quake Generation Experiment in South African Deep Gold Mines, Temporal variation of seismic parameters associated with an Mw∼2 event monitored at 100∼200 m distance, in Seismogenic Process Monitoring, edited by H. Ogasawara, T. Yanagidani, and M. Ando, pp. 173–184, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2002.
Ogasawara, H., J. Takeuchi, N. Shimoda, H. Ishii, S. Nakao, G. van Aswegen, A. J. Mendecki, A. Cichowicz, R. Ebrahim-Trollope, H. Kawakata, Y. Iio, T. Ohkura, M. Ando, and the Research Group for Semi-controlled Earthquake-generation Experiments in South African deep gold mines, High-resolution Strain Monitoring During M∼2 Events in a South African Deep Gold Mine in Close Proximity to Hypocentres, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, 385–391, 2005.
Ohnaka, M., Y. Kuwahara, K. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Dynamic breakdown process and the generating mechanism for high-frequency elastic radiation during stick-slip instability, in Earthquake Source Mechanics, Maurice Ewing Ser. 6, edited by S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz, pp. 13–24, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 1986.
Okada, Y. and E. Yamamoto, Dyke intrusion model for the 1989 seismo-volcanic activity off Ito, central Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 10361–10376, 1991.
Orowan, E., Mechanism of seismic faulting in rock deformation, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 79, 323–345, 1960.
Rudnicki, J. W., Physical models of earthquake instability and precursory processes, Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 531–554, 1988.
Sato, S., Inference of Earthquake Generation Process from Energy Index and Apparent Volume, Master Thesis, Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga, Japan, 2000 (in Japanese).
Savage, J. C. and M. D. Wood, The relationship between apparent stress and stress drop, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 61, 1381–1388, 1971.
Simmons, G., R. W Siegfried, and M. Feves, Differential strain analysis: A new method for examining cracks in rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 4383–4385, 1974.
Sugiyama, Y, Research on earthquake potential evaluation by active faults, Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 51, 379–389, 2000 (in Japanese with English Abstract).
Suzuki, H., R. Ikeda, T. Mikoshiba, S. Kinoshita, H. Sato, and H. Takahashi, Deep well logs in the Kanto-Tokai area, review, Res. Disas. Prev., 65, 1–162, 1981 (in Japanese with English Abstract).
Teufel, L. W., Determination of In-situ Stress from Anelastic Strain Recovery Measurements of Oriented Core, Proc. 1983 SPE/DOE Joint Symp. on Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs, 421–430, 1983.
Toda, S., R. S. Stein, and T. Sagiya, Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu island earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58–61, 2002.
van Aswegen, G. and A. Butler, Applications of quantitative seismology in South African gold mines, in Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines 93, edited by R. P. Young, pp. 261–266, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1993.
van Aswegen, G., A. J. Mendecki, and C. Funk, Application of quantitative seismology in mines, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 220–245, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.
Wessel, P. and W H. F. Smith, New version of the generic mapping tools released, Eos Trans. AGU, 76, 329, 1995.
Wyss, M. and J. N. Brune, Seismic moment, stress, and source dimensions for earthquakes in the California-Nevada region, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 4681–4694, 1968.
Yamada, T., J. J. Mori, S. Ide, H. Kawakata, Y Iio, and H. Ogasawara, Radiation efficiency and apparent stress of small eartqhaquake in a South African gold mine, J. Geophys. Res., 101(B1), 1305, doi:10.1029/2004JB003221, 2005.
Yamamoto, E., Y Okada, and T. Ohkubo, Ground tilt changes preceding the 1989 submarine eruption off Ito, Izu Peninsula, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 165–176, 1991.
Zang, A., H. Berckhemer, and M. Lienert, Crack closure pressures inferred from ultrasonic drill-core measurements to 8 km depth in the KTB wells, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 657–674, 1996.
About this article
Cite this article
Kawakata, H., Ogasawara, H., Sekiguchi, S. et al. Stress change prior to the major events in the 1989 earthquake swarm off the eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 58, 305–314 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351926
- Decrease in stress
- energy index
- earthquake development process
- earthquake swarm