Skip to main content

Advertisement

We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Stress change prior to the major events in the 1989 earthquake swarm off the eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan

Abstract

We investigate a temporal change in a stress parameter of earthquakes that occurred in the 1989 swarms off the eastern Izu Peninsula in Japan. We use the energy index (EI), which have been monitored in deep South African gold mines for predicting major events, as an estimate of apparent stress that is proportional to the ratio of seismic energy (E) to seismic moment (Mo). EI measures an excess or shortage in E with respect to the empirical relationship between E and Mo. We check that EI is almost proportional to the apparent stress for the ranges of Mo and frequency for our analysis, although E is underestimated due to the artifact of limited frequency band of monitoring. The largest events (M = 5.2 and 5.5) took place off the tip of a vertical crack, which opened associated with magma intrusion. While the opening continued to load the source areas of the M 5.2 and 5.5, we find significant decrease in EI prior to the events. Based on the experimental result that the stress decreases when yielding takes place prior to final failure, we interpret this observation as yielding in the vicinity of the large earthquake hypocenters, following a rapid increase in stress caused by magma intrusion.

References

  1. Abercrombie, R. E., Earthquake Source Scaling Relationships from —1 to 5 ML using seismograms recorded at 2.5-km depth, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 24015–24036, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Abercrombie, R. E. and J. Mori, Occurrence patterns of foreshocks to large earthquakes in the western United States, Nature, 381, 303–307, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Freeman, San Francisco, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Azimi, Sh. A., A. V. Kalinin, V. V. Kalinin, and B. L. Pivovarov, Impulse and transient characteristics of media with linear and quadratic absorption laws, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 2, 88–93, 1968.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Boatwright, J., A spectral theory for circular seismic sources; simple estimates of source dimension, dynamic stress drop, and radiated seismic energy, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 70, 1–26, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Brudy, M., M. D. Zoback, K. Fuchs, F. Rummel, and J. Baumgartner, Estimation of the complete stress tensor to 8 km depth in the KTB scientific drill holes: Implications for crustal strength, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18453–18475, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Brune, J. N., Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4997–5002, 1970.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Burridge, R. and L. Knopoff, Model and theoretical seismicity, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341–371, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Carlson, J. M. and J. S. Langer, Properties of earthquakes generated by fault dynamics, Phys. Rev. Lett., 62, 2632–2635, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. COMRO; Chamber of Mines Research Organization, in An Industry Guide to Methods of Ameliorating the Hazards of Rockfalls and Rockbursts, Chamber of Mines of South Africa, 114 pp, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Dieterich, J. H., A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601–2618, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dieterich, J., V. Cayol, and P. Okubo, The use of earthquake rate change as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano, Nature, 408, 457–460, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Earthquake Prediction Information Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, Seismic Activity off East Coast of Izu-Peninsula, 1989 and Strain Changes Observed by the Borehole Strainmeter, Rep. Coord. Comm. Earthq. Predict., 43, 284–289, 1990 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Eshelby, J. D., The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 241, 376–396, 1957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Fukuyama, E., S. Kinoshita, and F. Yamamizu, Unusual high-stress drop subevent during the M5.5 earthquake, the largest event of the 1989 Itooki swarm activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 641–644, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Gibowicz, S. J. and A. Kijko, An Introduction to Mining Seismology, Academic Press, San Diego, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ide, S. and G. C. Beroza, Does apparent stress vary with earthquake size?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3349–3352, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Iio, Y., Scaling relation between earthquake size and duration of faulting for shallow earthquakes in seismic moment between 1010 and 1025 dyne·cm, J. Phys. Earth, 34, 127–169, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ishii, H., T. Ohkura, and The Research Group for Semi-controlled Experiment for Earthquake Generation Process in South African Deep Gold Mine, Strain monitoring and earthquake generation in South African deep gold mine, Chikyu Monthly, 20, 419–422, 1998 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kanamori, H., J. Mori, E. Hauksson, T. H. Heaton, L. K. Hutton, and L. M. Jones, Determination of earthquake energy release and ML using TERRAscope, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 83, 330–346, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kato, N., K. Yamamoto, H. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Strain-rate effect on frictional strength and the slip nucleation process, Tectonophys., 211, 269–282, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kawakata, H. and M. Shimada, Frequency-magnitude relation of AE in fracture process of rocks at high confining pressures, Proc. 8th Int. Congr. Rock Mech., 1, 207–210, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kawakata, H., A. Cho, T. Kiyama, T. Yanagidani, K. Kusunose, and M. Shimada, Three-dimensional observations of faulting process in westerly granite under uniaxial and triaxial conditions by X-ray CT scan, Tectonophys., 313, 293–305, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Keilis-Borok, V. I., Investigation of the mechanism of earthquakes, Sov. Res. Geophys. (English Tlansl.), 4, 29, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kostrov, V. V., Seismic moment and energy of earthquakes, and seismic flow of rock, Izv. Earth Phys. (Engl. Tlansl. by F. Goodspeed), 1, 13–21, 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Lankford, J., The role of tensile microfracture in the strain rate dependence of compressive strength of fine-grained limestone-analogy with strong ceramics, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 18, 173–175, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Madariaga, R., Dynamics of an expanding circular fault, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 66, 639–666, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Maeda, K., Time distribution of immediate foreshocks obtained by a stacking method, Pure Appl. Geophys., 155, 381–394, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Matsumura, S., T. Ohkubo, and M. Imoto, Seismic swarm activity in and around the Izu Peninsula preceding the volcanic eruption of July 13, 1989, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 93–106, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mendecki, A. J., Quantitative seismology and rock mass stability, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 178–219, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Meredith, P. G., I. G. Main, and C. Jones, Temporal variation in seismicity during quasi-static and dynamic rock failure, Tectonophys., 175, 249–268, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ogasawara, H., S. Sato, S. Nishii, K. Mino, and Research Group for Earth-quake Generation Experiment in South African Deep Gold Mines, Temporal variation of seismic parameters associated with an Mw2 event monitored at 100200 m distance, in Seismogenic Process Monitoring, edited by H. Ogasawara, T. Yanagidani, and M. Ando, pp. 173–184, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ogasawara, H., J. Takeuchi, N. Shimoda, H. Ishii, S. Nakao, G. van Aswegen, A. J. Mendecki, A. Cichowicz, R. Ebrahim-Trollope, H. Kawakata, Y. Iio, T. Ohkura, M. Ando, and the Research Group for Semi-controlled Earthquake-generation Experiments in South African deep gold mines, High-resolution Strain Monitoring During M2 Events in a South African Deep Gold Mine in Close Proximity to Hypocentres, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, 385–391, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Ohnaka, M., Y. Kuwahara, K. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Dynamic breakdown process and the generating mechanism for high-frequency elastic radiation during stick-slip instability, in Earthquake Source Mechanics, Maurice Ewing Ser. 6, edited by S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz, pp. 13–24, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Okada, Y. and E. Yamamoto, Dyke intrusion model for the 1989 seismo-volcanic activity off Ito, central Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 10361–10376, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Orowan, E., Mechanism of seismic faulting in rock deformation, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 79, 323–345, 1960.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Rudnicki, J. W., Physical models of earthquake instability and precursory processes, Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 531–554, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Sato, S., Inference of Earthquake Generation Process from Energy Index and Apparent Volume, Master Thesis, Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga, Japan, 2000 (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  39. Savage, J. C. and M. D. Wood, The relationship between apparent stress and stress drop, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 61, 1381–1388, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Simmons, G., R. W Siegfried, and M. Feves, Differential strain analysis: A new method for examining cracks in rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 4383–4385, 1974.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Sugiyama, Y, Research on earthquake potential evaluation by active faults, Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 51, 379–389, 2000 (in Japanese with English Abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  42. Suzuki, H., R. Ikeda, T. Mikoshiba, S. Kinoshita, H. Sato, and H. Takahashi, Deep well logs in the Kanto-Tokai area, review, Res. Disas. Prev., 65, 1–162, 1981 (in Japanese with English Abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  43. Teufel, L. W., Determination of In-situ Stress from Anelastic Strain Recovery Measurements of Oriented Core, Proc. 1983 SPE/DOE Joint Symp. on Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs, 421–430, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Toda, S., R. S. Stein, and T. Sagiya, Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu island earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58–61, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. van Aswegen, G. and A. Butler, Applications of quantitative seismology in South African gold mines, in Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines 93, edited by R. P. Young, pp. 261–266, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  46. van Aswegen, G., A. J. Mendecki, and C. Funk, Application of quantitative seismology in mines, in Seismic Monitoring in Mines, edited by A. J. Mendecki, pp. 220–245, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Wessel, P. and W H. F. Smith, New version of the generic mapping tools released, Eos Trans. AGU, 76, 329, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Wyss, M. and J. N. Brune, Seismic moment, stress, and source dimensions for earthquakes in the California-Nevada region, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 4681–4694, 1968.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Yamada, T., J. J. Mori, S. Ide, H. Kawakata, Y Iio, and H. Ogasawara, Radiation efficiency and apparent stress of small eartqhaquake in a South African gold mine, J. Geophys. Res., 101(B1), 1305, doi:10.1029/2004JB003221, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Yamamoto, E., Y Okada, and T. Ohkubo, Ground tilt changes preceding the 1989 submarine eruption off Ito, Izu Peninsula, J. Phys. Earth, 39, 165–176, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Zang, A., H. Berckhemer, and M. Lienert, Crack closure pressures inferred from ultrasonic drill-core measurements to 8 km depth in the KTB wells, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 657–674, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hironori Kawakata.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kawakata, H., Ogasawara, H., Sekiguchi, S. et al. Stress change prior to the major events in the 1989 earthquake swarm off the eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 58, 305–314 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351926

Download citation

Key words

  • Decrease in stress
  • precursor
  • energy index
  • earthquake development process
  • earthquake swarm