Skip to main content

Airglow and other F-layer variations in the Indian sector during the geomagnetic storm of February 5–7, 2000

Abstract

A CCD based all-sky imaging system was used to monitor various nightglow emissions (OI 630-nm, OI 557.7- nm, OI 777.4-nm, Na (589.3-nm) and hydroxyl (OH) airglow) at a low latitude station, Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E, dip lat 10.6°N) in India to study the characteristics of night airglow variations observed during the period of a moderate/weak geomagnetic storm with SSC (Storm Sudden Commencement) commencing at 15:42 UT (21:12 IST (Indian Standard Time = UT + 5.5 hrs)) on February 5, 2000. The images on the night of February 6 show the development of strong ionization anomaly (EIA) with bright intensity regions in OI 630-nm and the signature of rising bubbles with very low intensity. Though the signature of ionospheric plasma bubbles were not observed on the night of February 7, the OI 630-nm images showed the presence of large scale enhanced airglow moving to the southeast direction. The speed was significantly fast (≈300 m/s). There were bright intensity regions also observed in OI 557.7-nm airglow, but no intensity enhancement was seen in other mesospheric emissions (Na (589.3-nm) and hydroxyl (OH) airglow ) during this magnetic disturbance. The ionosonde observations at the nearby station, Visakhapatnam (lat. 17.67°N, long. 83.32°E) also showed enhancement in electron density parameter ((foF2)2) at the station on each night compared to the night of February 4–5 (quiet day) around the same time interval maximizing around 23:00 IST on the night of February 7. The Total Electron Content (TEC) fluctuations obtained from GPS phase delays between two L-band signals (L1 = 1575 MHz and L2 = 1227 MHz) showed no enhancement at night at four mid latitude stations in Japan. However, noontime TEC values were enhanced on February 6 and 7 with maximum intensity occurring on February 7. It is inferred that enhanced storm time effects in the ionosphere were mainly confined to the low latitude region, the effects were subdued in the mid latitude stations.

References

  1. Aarons, J., The role of the ring current in the generation or inhibition of equatorial F layer irregularities during magnetic storms, Radio Sci., 26(4), 1131–1149, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, D. N. and M. Mendillo, Ionospheric conditions affecting the evolution of equatorial plasma depletions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 10, 541–544, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Balan, N. et al., Simultaneous mesosphere/lower thermosphere and thermospheric F region observations during geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 109, 120, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barbier, D., Airglow and earth storm, J. Phys. Soc. Japan Supl., A-1, 255–262, 1962.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Baumgardner, J. and S. Karandanis, CCD system using video graphics controller, Electronic Imaging, 3, 28–31, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Danilov, A. D. and L. D. Morozova, Ionospheric storms in the F2 region, Morphology and Physics (Review), Geomag. Aeron., 25, 593–604, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Fagundes, P. R., Y. Sahai, and H. Takahashi, Investigations of OI 557.7 nm and 630 nm nightglow intensity ratios during the occurrence of equatorial F-region plasma bubbles, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57(8), 929–932, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Fesen, C. G., G. Crowley, and R. G. Roble, Ionospheric effects at low latitudes during the March 22, 1989, Geomagnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 5405–5417, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Johnson, R. M. and L. G. Luhmann, Cross correlation of high latitude upper mesosphere neutral winds with AE and Kp, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 8625–8632, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kane, R. P., Storm effects of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at low latitudes, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 33, 399–409, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kiyama, Y., K. Kita, N. Iwagami, and T. Ogawa, Atomic oxygen 630 nm and OH Airglows at Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii in February and November 1993, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 48, 337–341, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kulkarni, P. V., Tropical Airglow, Ann. Geophys., 30, 105–115, 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Larsen, M. F., A. B. Christensen, and C. D. Odom, Observations of unstable atmospheric shear layers in the lower E region in the post-mid-night auroral oval, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1915–1918, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. McClure, J. P., W. B. Hanson, and J. F. Hoffman, Plasma depletions and irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 2650–2656, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Mendillo, M. and A. Tyler, Geometry of the depleted plasma regions in the equatorial ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5778–5882, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Mendillo, M., L. Bosheng, and J. Aarons, The application of GPS observations to equatorial aeronomy, Radio Sci., 35(3), 885–904, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Moore, J. G. and E. J. Weber, OI 6300 and OI 7774 A airglow measurements of equatorial plasma depletions, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 43, 851–858, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Mukherjee, G. K., Storm-associated variations of [OI] 630 nm emission from low latitudes, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 10(1), 265–276, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Mukherjee, G. K., Studies of equatorial F-region plasma depletions and dynamics using multiple wavelength nightglow Imaging, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (UK), 65/3, 379–390, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mukherjee, G. K. and P. L. Dyson, A filter tilting photometer for nightglow measurement of 630.0-nm emission lines, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 21, 212–217, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Mukherjee, G. K., L. Carlo, S. H. Mahajan, and P. T. Patil, First results of all-sky imaging from India, Earth Planets Space, 50, 119–127, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mukherjee, G. K., L. Carlo, and S. H. Mahajan, 630 nm nightglow observations from 17°N latitude, Earth Planets Space, 52(2), 105–110, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Nozawa, S. and A. Brekke, Studies of the E region neutral wind in the disturbed auroral ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14,717–14,734, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Obyashi, T., Research in Geophysics, edited by H. Odishaw, chap. 14, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964.

  25. Rajaram, G. and R. Rastogi, A synoptic study of the distributed ionosphere, during IGY and-IGC-(1) the Asian Zone, Ann. Geophys., 34, 31–36, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Rajaram, G., A. C. Das, and R. G. Rastogi, Ionospheric F-region disturbances and their possible mechanisms, Ann. Geophys., 27, 469–475, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Rishbeth, H., R. Gordon, D. Rees, and T. J. Fuller-Rowell, Modelling of thermospheric composition changes caused by a severe storm, Planet Space Sci., 33(1), 1283–1301, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Sahai, Y., A. Bittencourt, H. Takahashi, N. R. Teixera, J. H. A. Sobral, B. A. Tinsley, and R. P. Rohrbaugh, Multi spectral optical observations of ionospheric F-region storm effects at low latitude, Planet Space Sci., 36(4), 371–381, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Sahai, Y., A. Bittencourt, H. Takahashi, N. R. Teixera, B. A. Tinsley, and R. P. Rohrbaugh, Analysis of storm- time low latitude simultaneous ionospheric and nightglow emission measurements, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 52(9), 749–757, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Sahai, Y., J. Aarons, M. Mendillo, H. Takahashi, M. A. Abdu, and E. R. da Paula, Studies of storm-time equatorial F-region irregularities, Proceedings of COSPAR Colloquium on Low-Latitude Ionospheric Physics held in Taipei, Taiwan, 9–12 November, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Sahai, Y., K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, C. Ihara, T. Ogawa, K. Igarashi, S. Miyazaki, and A. Saito, Imaging observations of mid-latitude ionospheric disturbances during the geomagnetic storm on February 12, 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 24,481–24,492, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Saito, B., Strong enhancements of airglow in low latitude regions during magnetic storms, Rep. Ionosph. Space Res. Japan, 27, 105–108, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Salah, J. E. and L. P. Goncharenko, Search for geomagnetic storm effects on lower thermospheric winds at mid latitudes, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 63, 951–963, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Shepherd, G. G., L. L. Cogger, and J. R. Burrows, Mid latitude Auroral and SAR Arcs observed from the ISIS-II Spacecraft during the August 1972 geomagnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 81(25), 4597–4602, 1976.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, M. K. Ejiri, Y. Sahai, T. Kadota, C. Ihara, T. Ogawa, K. Igarashi, S. Miyazaki, and A. Saito, Imaging observations of the equatorward limit of mid latitude travelling ionospheric disturbances, Earth Planets Space, 54, 57–62, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Singer, W. et al., Geomagnetic influences upon tides-winds from MLT radars, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 1301–1311, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Sobral, J. H. A., M. A. Abdu, W. D. González, B. T. Tsurutani, I. S. Batista, and A. L. Clua de Gonzalez, Effects of intense storms and substorms on the equatorial ionosphere/thermosphere system in the American sector from ground-based and satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 102(A7), 14305–14313, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Takahashi, T., H. Oya, and S. Watanabe, Ionospheric disturbances induced by storm associated electric fields in the low latitude F-region, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 39, 187–209, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Tinsley, B. A., Energetic neutral atom precipitation during magnetic storms: Optical emission, ionization and energy deposition at low and middle latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 1855–1864, 1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Tinsley, B. A., R. P. Rohrbaugh, H. Rassoul, Y. Sahai, N. R. Teixeira, and D. Slater, Low latitude aurora and storm time currents, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 11257–11269, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Tsunoda, T., On the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread-F irregularities and plasma depletions, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 185–190, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Weber, E. J., J. Buchau, and J. G. Moore, Airborne studies of equatorial ionospheric irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 85(A9), 4631–4641, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Woodman, R. F. and C. LaHoz, Radar observations of F region equatorial irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5447–5466, 1976.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Yamamoto, A., Y. Ohta, T. Okuzawa, S. Taguchi, I. Tomizawa, and T. Shibata, Characteristics of TEC variations observed at Chofu for geomagnetic storms, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1073–1076, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Zhang, S. P. and G. G. Shepherd, Neutral winds and O (1S) emission rates in the lower thermosphere as measured with WINDII/UARS during the April 4–5th 1993 and February 1994 geomagnetic storms, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 64, 1201–1214, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Zhang, S. P., J. E. Salah, N. Mitchell, W. Singer, Y. Murayama, R. R. Clark, A. van Eyken, and J. Thayer, Response of the mesosphere wind at high latitudes to the April 2002 space storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(23), 2225–2226, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to G. K. Mukherjee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mukherjee, G.K. Airglow and other F-layer variations in the Indian sector during the geomagnetic storm of February 5–7, 2000. Earth Planet Sp 58, 623–632 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351960

Download citation

Key words

  • Ionosphere
  • Equatorial ionosphere
  • Ionospheric irregularities
  • Electric fields and currents