- Open Access
Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the ring current injection rate
Earth, Planets and Space volume 58, pages679–688(2006)
In order to check the validity of Akasofu’s ε parameter and of the Vasyliunas et al. (1982) general formula, we examine the dependence of the ring current injection rate, calculated from the Dst index for the period of 1965–1990, on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We compare the influence of the Bz component with the influence of the combination of sin(θ/2), where θ is the IMF clock angle, and the IMF magnitude, B, (or the transverse component of the IMF, BT = (By2 + Bz2)1/2) by using the regression analysis in a power law form. The main results are as follows: (1) the exponent for Bz shows higher consistency than that for sin(θ/2); (2) we never obtain B2 sin4(θ/2) or BT2 sin4(θ/2), which is the IMF dependence expected from the ε parameter; and (3) the ring current injection rate has a very low correlation with the Alfven Mach number, from which the IMF dependence of the Vasyliunas et al. general formula is assumed to arise. On the basis of the above results we conclude that the ε parameter and the Vasyliunas et al. general formula are less appropriate than a function of Bz, and that the energy coupling function between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is described better by Bz than by the combination of B (or BT) and sin(θ/2). The above results and conclusions are the same as those obtained by Aoki (2005) through the analysis of the AL index.
Allen, J. H. and H. W. Kroehl, Spatial and temporal distributions of magnetic effects of auroral electrojets as derived from AE indices, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3667–3677, 1975.
Aoki, T., Influence of the dipole tilt angle on the development of auroral electrojets, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 29, 441–453, 1977.
Aoki, T., On the validity of Akasofu’s ε parameter and of the Vasyliunas et al. general formula for the rate of solar wind-magnetosphere energy input, Earth Planets Space, 57, 131–137, 2005.
Baker, D. N., R. D. Zwickl, S. J. Bame, E. W. Hones, Jr., B. T. Tsurutani, E. J. Smith, and S.-I. Akasofu, An ISEE 3 high time resolution study of interplanetary parameter correlations with magnetospheric activity, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6230–6242, 1983.
Bargatze, L. F., R. L. McPherron, and D. N. Baker, Solar windmagnetosphere energy input functions, in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling, edited by Y. Kamide and J. A. Slavin, pp. 101–109, Terrapub/ Reidel, Tokyo, 1986.
Burton, R. K., R. L. McPherron, and C. T. Russell, An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4204–4214, 1975.
Dessler, A. J. and E. N. Parker, Hydromagnetic theory of geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2239–2252, 1959.
Fairfield, D. H. and L. J. Cahill, Jr., Transition region magnetic field and polar magnetic disturbances, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 155–169, 1966.
Feldstein, Y. I., V. Yu. Pisarsky, N.M. Rudneva, and A. Grafe, Ring current simulation in connection with interplanetary space conditions, Planet. Space Sci., 32, 975–984, 1984.
Fenrich, F. R. and J. G. Luhmann, Geomagnetic response to magnetic clouds of different polarity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2999–3002, 1998.
Gonzalez, W. D., B. T. Tsurutani, A. L. C. Gonzalez, E. J. Smith, F. Tang, and S.-I. Akasofu, Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978–1979), J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8835–8851, 1989.
Gonzalez, W. D., J. A. Joselyn, Y. Kamide, H. W. Kroehl, G. Rostoker, B. T. Tsurutani, and V. M. Vasyliunas, What is a geomagnetic storm?, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5771–5792, 1994.
Kamide, Y. and S.-I. Akasofu, Notes on the auroral electrojet indices, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 21, 1647–1656, 1983.
Koskinen, H. E. J. and E. I. Tanskanen, Magnetospheric energy budget and the epsilon parameter, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A11), 1415, doi:10.1029/ 2002JA009283, 2002.
Maezawa, K., Statistical study of the dependence of geomagnetic activity on solar wind parameters, in Quantitative Modeling of Magnetospheric Processes, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 21, edited by W. P. Olson, pp. 436–447, AGU, Washington, D. C., 1979.
Maezawa, K. and T. Murayama, Solar wind velocity effects on the auroral zone magnetic disturbances, in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling, edited by Y. Kamide and J. A. Slavin, pp. 59–83, Terrapub/Reidel, Tokyo, 1986.
Murayama, T., Coupling function between the solar wind and the Dst index, in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling, edited by Y. Kamide and J. A. Slavin, pp. 119–126, Terrapub/Reidel, Tokyo, 1986.
Murayama, T and K. Hakamada, Effects of solar wind parameters on the development of magnetospheric substorms, Planet. Space Sci., 23, 75–91, 1975.
Murayama, T., T. Aoki, H. Nakai, and K. Hakamada, Empirical formula to relate the auroral electrojet intensity with interplanetary parameters, Planet. Space Sci., 28, 803–813, 1980.
Nakai, H., Influence of the transverse component of the interplanetary magnetic field on the size of the auroral oval, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 39, 501–519, 1987.
Neugebauer, M. and C. W. Synder, Mariner 2 observations of the solar wind, 1, Average properties, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 4469–4484, 1966.
O’Brien, T. P. and R. L. McPherron, An empirical phase space analysis of ring current dynamics: Solar wind control of injection and decay, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7707–7719, 2000.
O’Brien, T. P. and R. L. McPherron, Seasonal and diurnal variation of Dst dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 107A11), 1341, doi:10.1029/2002JA009435, 2002.
Perreault, P. and S.-I. Akasofu, A study of geomagnetic storms, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 54, 547–573, 1978.
Rostoker, G., H.-L. Lam, and W. D. Hume, Response time of the magnetosphere to the interplanetary electric field, Can. J. Phys., 50, 544–547, 1972.
Sckopke, N., A general relation between the energy of trapped particles and the disturbance field near the Earth, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 3125–3130, 1966.
Temerin, M. and X. Li, A new model for the prediction of Dst on the basis of the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A12), 1472, doi:10.1029/2001JA007532, 2002.
Vasyliunas, V. M., J. R. Kan, G. L. Siscoe, and S.-I. Akasofu, Scaling relations governing magnetospheric energy transfer, Planet. Space Sci., 30, 359–365, 1982.
Wu, J.-G. and H. Lundstedt, Geomagnetic storm predictions from solar wind data with the use of dynamic neural networks, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14255–14268, 19
Wu, J.-G. and H. Lundstedt, Neural network modeling of solar windmagnetosphere interaction, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14457–14466, 1997b.
About this article
Cite this article
Aoki, T. Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the ring current injection rate. Earth Planet Sp 58, 679–688 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351965
- Ring current injection rate
- ε parameter
- Vasyliunas et al. general formula
- IMF clock angle