- Open Access
Observations of the lower thermospheric neutral temperature and density in the DELTA campaign
Earth, Planets and Space volume 58, pages1123–1130(2006)
The rotational temperature and number density of molecular nitrogen (N2) in the lower thermosphere were measured by the N2 temperature instrument onboard the S-310-35 sounding rocket, which was launched from Andøya at 0:33 UT on 13 December 2004, during the Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora (DELTA) campaign. The rotational temperature measured at altitudes between 95 and 140 km, which is expected to be equal to neutral temperature, is much higher than neutral temperature from the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) model. Neutral temperatures in the lower thermosphere were observed using the auroral green line at 557.7 nm by two Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) at Skibotn and the Kiruna Esrange Optical Platform System site. The neutral temperatures derived from the look directions closest to the rocket correspond to the rotational temperature measured at an altitude of 120 km. In addition, a combination of the all-sky camera images at 557.7 nm observed at two stations, Kilpisjärvi and Muonio, suggests that the effective altitude of the auroral arcs at the time of the launch is about 120 km. The FPI temperature observations are consistent with the in situ rocket observations rather than the MSIS model.
Capitelli, M., C. M. Ferreira, B. F. Gordiets, and A. I. Osipov, Plasma Kinetics in Atmospheric Gases, Springer series on atomic, optical, and plasma physics, 31, Springer, New York, 300 pp, 2000.
Fujii, R., S. Nozawa, N. Matuura, and A. Brekke, Study on neutral wind contribution to the electrodynamics in the polar ionosphere using EISCAT CP-1 data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14731–14739, 1998.
Fujiwara, H., S. Maeda, M. Suzuki, S. Nozawa, and H. Fukunishi, Estimates of electromagnetic and turbulent energy dissipation rates under the existence of strong wind shears in the polar lower thermosphere from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A07306, doi:10.1029/2003JA010046, 2004.
Griffin, E., M. Kosch, A. Aruliah, A. Kavanagh, I. McWhirter, A. Senior, E. Ford, C. Davis, T. Abe, J. Kurihara, K. Kauristie, and Y. Ogawa, Combined ground-based optical support for the aurora (DELTA) sounding rocket campaign, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 1113–1121, 2006.
Gumbel, J., Aerodynamic influences on atmospheric in situ measurements from sounding rockets, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 10553–10563, 2001.
Hedin, A. E., Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1159–1172, 1991.
Holmes, J. M., M. Conde, C. Deehr, and D. Lummerzheim, Morphology of evening sector aurorae in λ557.7-nm Doppler temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02103, doi:10.1029/2004GL021553, 2005.
Iwagami, N., S. Komada, and T. Takahashi, Preliminary results of rocket attitudes and auroral green line emission rates in the DELTA campaign, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 1107–1111, 2006.
Kawashima, T., K.-I. Oyama, K. Suzuki, N. Iwagami, and S. Teii, A measurement of the N2 number density and the N2 vibrational rotational temperature in the lower thermosphere—Instrumentation and preliminary results, Adv. Space Res., 19, 663–666, 1997.
Kosch, M. J., M. Ishii, S. Nozawa, D. Rees, K. Cierpka, A. Kohsiek, K. Schlegel, R. Fujii, T. Hagfors, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, and C. Lathuillere, A comparison of thermospheric winds and temperatures from Fabry- Perot interferometer and EISCAT radar measurements with models, Adv. Space Res., 26, 979–984, 2000.
Kurihara, J. and K.-I. Oyama, Rocket-borne instrument for measuring vibrational-rotational temperature and density in the lower thermosphere, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 083101, doi:10.1063/1.1988189, 2005.
Kurihara, J., K.-I. Oyama, K. Suzuki, and N. Iwagami, Vibrationalrotational temperature measurement of N2 in the lower thermosphere by the rocket experiment, Adv. Space Res., 32, 725–729, 2003.
Kurihara, J., K.-I. Oyama, N. Iwagami, and T. Takahashi, Numerical simulation of 3D flow around sounding rocket in the lower thermosphere, Ann. Geophys., 24, 89–95, 2006.
Larsen, M. F., A. B. Christensen, and C. D. Odom, Observations of unstable atmospheric shear layers in the lower E region in the post-midnight auroral oval, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1915–1918, 1997.
Lübken, F.-J. and U. von Zahn, Thermal structure of the mesopause region at polar latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 20841–20857, 1991.
Maeda, S., S. Nozawa, Y. Ogawa, and H. Fujiwara, Comparative study of the high-latitude E region ion and neutral temperatures in the polar cap and the auroral region derived from the EISCAT radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08301, doi:10.1029/2004JA010893, 2005.
Nozawa, S., Y. Ogawa, A. Brekke, T. Tsuda, C. M. Hall, H. Miyaoka, J. Kurihara, T. Abe, and R. Fujii, EISCAT observational results during the DELTA campaign, Earth Planets Space, 58, this issue, 1183–1191, 2006.
About this article
Cite this article
Kurihara, J., Abe, T., Oyama, K. et al. Observations of the lower thermospheric neutral temperature and density in the DELTA campaign. Earth Planet Sp 58, 1123–1130 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352001
- The DELTA campaign
- the lower thermosphere
- temperature and density