Skip to main content

Polarization analysis of a Pi2 pulsation using continuous wavelet transform


In this contribution, we extend a series of previous works focused on an investigation of signal’s polarization attributes using the continuous wavelet transform, where we proposed a method to map instantaneous polarization attributes of multicomponent signals in the wavelet domain and explicitly relate these attributes with the wavelet transform coefficients of the analyzed signal. In this work, we applied our polarization method to an examination of characteristics of Pi2 pulsations. We have shown some merits of the use of the continuous wavelet transform for the Pi2 pulsations’ analysis. First, we used our polarization method for the geomagnetic field data from the MSR, KAK, GUA, SMA, BLM and LAQ observatories and showed some correlations between the polarization parameters of pulsation and the station’s position (nightside or dayside). Secondly, we considered the signal’s north components of a pair of stations and demonstrated a time-frequency variations of the phase difference between two stations during the pulsation.


  • Diallo, M. S., M. Kulesh, M. Holschneider, F. Scherbaum, and F. Adler, Characterization of polarization attributes of seismic waves using continuous wavelet transforms, Geophysics, 71(3), V67–V77, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fujita, S., M. Itonaga, and H. Nakata, Relationship between the Pi2 pulsations and the localized impulsive current associated with the current disruption in the magnetosphere, Earth Planets Space, 52(4), 267–281, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fujita, S., H. Nakata, M. Itonaga, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Mizuta, A numerical simulation of the Pi2 pulsations associated with the substorm current wedge, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A3), 1034, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Han, D., T. Iyemori, Y. Gao, Y. Sano, F. Yang, W. Li, and M. Nosé, Local time dependence of the frequency of Pi2 waves simultaneously observed at 5 low-latitude stations, Earth Planets Space, 55(10), 601–612, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holschneider, M., Wavelets: an Analysis Tool, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanasewich, E. R., Time Sequence Analysis in Geophysics, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kosaka, K., T. Iyemori, M. Nosé, M. Bitterly, and J. Bitterly, Local time dependence of the dominant frequency of Pi2 pulsations at mid- and low-latitudes, Earth Planets Space, 54(7), 771–781, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lanzerotti, L. J. and L. V. Medford, Local night, impulsive (Pi2-type) hydromagnetic wave polarization at low latitudes, Planet. Space Sci., 32(2), 135–142, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lester, M., W. J. Hughes, and H. J. Singer, Polarization patterns of Pi2 magnetic pulsations and the substorm current wedgee, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 7958–7966, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lester, M., W. J. Hughes, and H. J. Singer, Longitudinal structure in Pi2 pulsations and the substorm current wedge, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 5489–5494, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morozov, I. B. and S. B. Smithson, Instantaneous polarization attributes and directional filtering, Geophysics, 61(3), 872–881, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nosé, M., Automated detection of Pi2 pulsations using wavelet analysis: 2. An application for dayside Pi2 pulsation study, Earth Planets Space, 51(1), 23–32, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nosé, M., K. Takahashi, T. Uozumi, K. Yumoto, Y. Miyoshi, A. Morioka, D. K. Milling, P. R. Sutcliffe, H. Matsumoto, T. Goka, and H. Nakata, Multipoint observations of a Pi2 pulsation on morningside: The 20 September 1995 event, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A5), 1219, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nosé, M., K. Liou, and P. R. Sutcliffe, Longitudinal dependence of characteristics of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations observed at Kakioka and Her-manus, Earth Planets Space, 58(6), 775–783, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Osaki, H., K. Yumoto, K. Fukao, K. Shiokawa, F. W. Menk, B. J. Fraser, and the 210° MM Magnetic Observation Group, Characteristics of low-latitude Pi2 pulsations along the 210° magnetic meridian, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 48, 1421–1430, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinnegar, C. R., Polarization analysis and polarization filtering of three-component signals with the time-frequency S transform, Geophys. J. Int., 165(2), 596–606, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rene, R. M., J. L. Fitter, P. M. Forsyth, K. Y. Kim, D. J. Murray, J. K. Walters, and J. D. Westerman, Multicomponent seismic studies using complex trace analysis, Geophysics, 51(6), 1235–1251, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yumoto, K., H. Osaki, K. Fukao, K. Shiokawa, Y. Tanaka, S. I. Solovyev, G. Krymskij, E. F. Vershinin, V. F. Osinin, and the 210° MM Magnetic Oservation Group, Correlation of high- and low-latitude Pi2 magnetic pulsations observed at 210° magnetic merdian chain stations, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 46, 925–935, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Kulesh.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kulesh, M., Nosé, M., Holschneider, M. et al. Polarization analysis of a Pi2 pulsation using continuous wavelet transform. Earth Planet Sp 59, 961–970 (2007).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • Polarization attributes
  • multicomponent signal
  • wavelet transform
  • Pi2 pulsation