- Open Access
First results of all-sky imaging from India
Earth, Planets and Space volume 50, pages119–127(1998)
A CCD based all-sky (180° field view) airglow imaging system was operated from a low latitude station, Kolhapur (16.8° N, 74.2° E; 10.6° N dip lat.) in India to map the thermospheric motion and to study the low latitude ionospheric irregularities by measuring the nightglow signatures at 630 nm. In general, all-sky imaging techniques offer broad, instantaneous coverage (2.5 million sq km area at 150° field of view at 300 km height) of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the airglow features from the selected layers of the thermosphere and ionosphere system. In addition to the all-sky camera, photometer and radio scintillation observations together with ionospheric soundings were carried out from Kolhapur to verify the signature of small scale as well as large scale size F-region irregularities. Initial results from these measurements display good examples of north-south motion of the thermosphere with apparent drift speeds of 143–200 m/s during geomagnetically quiet nights. The north-south aligned (>1000 km) bands of plasma depletions or bubbles with east-west dimension of 50–250 km moving with drift speed of 140 m/s towards east have been observed. The zonal component of plasma drift speed matches well with the eastward component of the neutral speed computed using Hedin’s recent model. However, the meridional components of plasma drift speed are generally higher than the components of the neutral wind speed computed using the model. The results confirm the earlier quantitative investigations of equatorial depletion characteristics from Brazil and elsewhere.
Abdu, M. A., J. H. A. Sobral, Y. Nakamura, and C. J. Zamlutti, Equatorial plasma bubble zonal velocity height gradient from spaced VHF polarimeter and scanning 630 nm measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 965–967, 1987.
Abreu, V. J. and W. R. Skinner, Inversion of Fabry-Perot CCD images: Application to doppler shift measurements, Appl. Opt., 28, 3382–3388, 1989.
Anderson, D. N. and M. Mendillo, Ionospheric conditions affecting the evolution of equatorial plasma depletions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 10, 541–544, 1983.
Baumgardner, J. and S. Karandanis, CCD system using video graphics controller, Electronic Imaging, 3, 28–31, 1984.
Bittencourt, J. A., Y. Sahai, P. R. Fugundes, and H. Takahashi, Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions and the thermospheric winds, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 59(9), 1049–1059, 1997.
Carman, E. H., Equatorial depletions in the 630.0 nm airglow at Vanimo, Planet. Space Sci., 31, 355–362, 1983.
Dyson, P. L. and R. F. Benson, Topside sounder observations of equatorial bubbles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 795–798, 1978.
Fejer, B. G., D. T. Farley, C. A. Gonzales, R. F. Woodman, and C. Calderon, F region east-west drifts at Jicamarca, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 215–218, 1981.
Fukunishi, H., Report on ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and response to energy and momentum inputs, in Solar Terrestrial Environmental Research in Japan, Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Environment Research, Nagoya University, Japan, 18, 21–23, 1996.
Hake, Jr., Studies of the motion of equatorial 630.0 nm airglow depletions, Planet. Space Sci., 29, 1267–1272, 1981.
Hedin, A. E., M. A. Biondi, R. G. Burnside, G. Hernandez, R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, C. Mazaudier, J. W. Meriwether, J. E. Salah, R. J. Sica, R. W. Smith, N. W. Spencer, V. B. Wickwar, and T. S. Virdi, Revised global model of thermosphere winds using satellite and ground based observations, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 7657–7688, 1991.
Hedin, A. E., E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidin, S. K. Avery, R. R. Clark, S. J. Franke, G. J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial, and R. A. Vincent, Emperical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58(13), 1421–1427, 1996.
Heelis, R. A., P. C. Kendall, R. J. Moffett, D. W. Windle, and H. Rishbeth, Electric Coupling of the E- and F-regions and it’s effect of F region drifts and winds, Planet. Space Sci., 22, 743–756, 1974.
Herrero, F. A., N. W. Spencer, and H. G. Mayr, Thermosphere and F-region plasma dynamics in the equatorial region, Adv. Space Res., 13(1), 201–220, 1993.
Janesick, J. and M. Blouke, Sky on a chip: The fabulous CCD, Sky and Telescope, 9, 238–242, 1987.
Malcolm, R., C. Miles, and B. A. Tinsley, Field aligned observations of trans-equatorial bubbles from Rarotonga in 1969–1970, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 665–668, 1984.
McClure, J. P., W. B. Hanson, and J. H. Hoffman, Plasma bubbles and irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 2650–2656, 1977.
Mendillo, M. and J. Baumgardner, Airglow characteristics of equatorial plasma depletions, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 7641–7652, 1982.
Mendillo, M. and A. Tyler, Geometry of depleted plasma regions in the equatorial ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5778–5782, 1983.
Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, and P. J. Sultan, Optical and radar techniques applied to chemical release in active experiments in the ionosphere/thermosphere system, Adv. Space Res., 10, 8–15, 1989.
Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, X.-Q. Pi, P. J. Sultan, and R. T. Tsunoda, Onset conditions for equatorial spread-F, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 13865–13876, 1992.
Moore, J. G. and E. J. Weber, OI 6300 and 7774 Å airglow measurements of equatorial plasma depletions, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 43, 851–858, 1981.
Mukherjee, G. K. and P. L. Dyson, A filter tilting photometer for nightglow measurement of 630.0 nm emission line, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 21, 212–217, 1992.
Mukherjee, G. K., L. Carlo, and P. T. Patil, First all-sky imaging observations from India, South Pacific STEP workshop, New Castle, Australia, July 3–9, 1993.
Mukherjee, G. K., L. Carlo, and P. T. Patil, All-sky imaging observations from low latitudes, in Proc. Saha Memorial Symposium on Science and Technology (Plasma93), edited by I. M. L. Das, pp. 219–222, Allied Publishers, New Delhi (India), 1994.
Muldrew, D. B., Characteristics of ionospheric bubbles determined from aspect sensitive scatter spread-F observed with Alouette 1., J. Geophys. Res., 85, 2115–2123, 1980.
Rishbeth, H., The F-layer dynamo, Planet. Space Sci., 19, 263–267, 1971.
Rohrbaugh, R. P., W. B. Hansen, B. A. Tinsley, B. L. Cragin, J. P. McClure, and A. L. Broadfoot, Images of transequatorial bubbles based on field-aligned airglow observations from Haleakala in 1984–1986, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6763–6770, 1989.
Sahai, Y., J. A. Bittencourt, N. R. Teixeira, and H. Takahashi, Plasma irregularities in the tropical F-region detected by OI 7774 Å and 6300 Å nightglow measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 3496–3500, 1981.
Sahai, Y., J. Aarons, M. Mendillo, J. Baumgardner, J. A. Bittencourt, and H. Takahashi, OI 630 nm imaging observations of equatorial plasma depletions at 16° S dip latitude, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 1461–1475, 1994.
Sahai, Y., J. A. Bittencourt, J. H. A. Sobral, P. R. Fagundes, and H. Takahashi, Observations of ionospheric plasma depletions using OI 630.0 nm nightglow imaging, Revista Bras de Geophys, 14(1), 15–28, 1996.
Sinha, H. S. S., R. N. Misra, H. Chandra, Multiple-wavelength optical imaging of ionospheric plasma depletions, Ind. J. Radio Space Phys., 25, 44–52, 1996.
Sobral, J. H. A., M. A. Abdu, and Y. Sahai, Equatorial plasma bubble eastward velocity characteristics from scanning airglow photometer measurements over Cachoeira Paulista, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 47, 895–900, 1985.
Sobral, J. H. A., M. A. Abdu, and Y. Sahai, Latitudinal gradient in the plasma zonal velocities as observed by scanning 630-nm airglow measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 8253–8257, 1990.
Tinsley, B. A., Field aligned airglow observations of trans-equatorial bubbles in the tropical F-region, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44, 547–557, 1982.
Tsunoda, R. T., On the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread F irregularities and plasma bubbles, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 185–190, 1980.
Weber, E. J., J. Buchau, R. H. Eather, and S. B. Mende, North-south aligned equatorial airglow depletions, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 712–716, 1978.
Weber, E. J., J. Buchau, and J. G. Moore, Airborne studies of equatorial F-layer ionospheric irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 4631–4641, 1980.
Weber, E. J., H. C. Brinton, J. Buchau, and J. G. Moore, Coordinated airborne and satellite measurements of equatorial plasma depletions, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 10503–10513, 1982.
Weber, E. J., J. Aarons, and A. L. Johnson, Conjugate studies of an isolated equatorial irregularity region, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 3175–3180, 1983.
Woodman, R. F. and C. La Hoz, Radar observations of F region equatorial irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5447–5466, 1976.
Yeh, K. C., H. Soicher, C. H. Liu, and E. Bonelli, Ionospheric bubbles observed by the Faraday rotation method at Natal, Brazil, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 473–475, 1979.
Zalesak, S. T. and S. L. Ossakow, Mem. Repl. 4899, Naval Res. Lab., Washington, D.C., 1982.
Zalesak, S. T., S. L. Ossakow, and P. K. Chaturvedi, Nonlinear equatorial spread F: The effect of neutral winds and background Pederson conductivity, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 151–155, 1982.
About this article
Cite this article
Mukherjee, G.K., Carlo, L., Mahajan, S.H. et al. First results of all-sky imaging from India. Earth Planet Sp 50, 119–127 (1998) doi:10.1186/BF03352093
- Neutral Wind
- Plasma Bubble
- Indian Standard Time
- Plasma Depletion
- Airglow Intensity